Excelente artigo de Steve Denning "How do you change an organizational Culture?"
Quando as pessoas se queixam de que este novo governo, não conta, não diz onde vai cortar...
"In general, the most fruitful success strategy is to begin with leadership tools, including a vision or story of the future, cement the change in place with management tools, such as role definitions, measurement and control systems, and use the pure power tools of coercion and punishments as a last resort, when all else fails."
"Do come with a clear vision of where you want the organization to go and promulgate that vision rapidly and forcefully with leadership storytelling. (Moi ici: Moisés começou por descrever a Terra Prometida onde corria leite e mel. Não começou por descrever os sacrifícios por que iriam passar...)
Do identify the core stakeholders of the new vision and drive the organization to be continuously and systematically responsive to those stakeholders. (Moi ici: A emigração é um sinal ... )
Do define the role of managers as enablers of self-organizing teams and draw on the full capabilities of the talented staff.
Do quickly develop and put in place new systems and processes that support and reinforce this vision of the future, drawing on the practices of dynamic linking. (Moi ici: Não é mais do mesmo... saque aos saxões)
Do introduce and consistently reinforce the values of radical transparency and continuous improvement.
Do communicate horizontally in conversations and stories, not through top-down commands.
Don’t start by reorganizing. First clarify the vision and put in place the management roles and systems that will reinforce the vision.
Don’t parachute in a new team of top managers. Work with the existing managers and draw on people who share your vision."
A foto, de péssima qualidade, foi tirada, via telemóvel, da revista Casas&Ideias publicada esta semana no semanário Sol.
A foto mostra uma rua very-in da cidade de Lisboa, onde várias montras de uma loja são usadas como bancos para descansar.
Sintoma de que faltam bancos naquela rua para peões?
Ninguém quer propor à Câmara Municipal a colocação de bancos em contrapartida pela publicidade neles exibida?
Através deste excelente postal do José Baldaia "I am sure that there is a future" tive conhecimento desta citação de Roger Martin:
“If you can’t imagine it, you will never create it.” The future is about imagination, not measurement. To imagine a future, one has to look beyond the measurable variables, beyond what can be proven with past data.” – Roger Martin
E eu, um tipo com um blogue chamado "Balanced Scorecard", acho a frase de Roger Martin super deliciosa e carregada de significado... bem na linha de "Value it's a feelling not a calculation", bem na linha de concentrar a atenção no numerador, na originação de valor na eficácia, no sonho, em vez de no eficientismo limitado do denominador tão característico dos pobres muggles que não sabem que a magia existe.
Recordar a flexibilidade talibã
Embora use demasiados clichés, embora continue com a linguagem do denominador, recomenda-se a leitura de:
"Part 1: Seeking a Path out of the Crisis in Portugal"
"Part 2: A Country that Produces Too Little and Consumes Too Much"
""Der Spiegel": "Poupar não basta para Portugal sair da crise""
E quando lerem:
"Today Portugal is a country with an oversized bureaucracy. Of its labor force of 5 million, some 750,000 work in the public sector, and they are well paid. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), salaries for Portuguese civil servants are "far above" incomes for comparable work in the private sector.
Nevertheless, many government agencies are inefficient and ineffective. The processing of tax returns is often delayed, government offices are chronically late in paying invoices and the permitting process can be a waiting game. For example, it takes an average of 287 days to complete all the formalities required to build a warehouse in Portugal. The OECD average is 157 days."
Lembrem-se do cuco e do imposto que este ano é extraordinário e que para o ano é ordinário. E, já agora disto "Governo aprova corte de 10% nos gastos do Estado"
Nos últimos tempos tenho lido muito sobre a co-criação (definições relevantes aqui). Por exemplo:
"The Future of Business is not Created, It’s Co-Created
Customer influence is growing and when they’re not focusing attention on one another, they’re focusing activity toward the things that move them. As we know, brands and organizations are the recipients of sentiment, both good and bad. It’s what we do with the feedback and insights that define the brand in the future. In addition to brand, competitive advantages will lean toward businesses that embrace customer engagement to shape and steer experiences and innovate future products, services and uses.
In a separate study, eMarketer learned that customers do indeed want deeper engagement with the brands and products they care about. At the same time, companies that embraced a culture and philosophy of co-creation are realizing that open collaboration is instrumental in keeping a competitive edge.
Companies also tend to restrict their co-creation activities to discrete moments in the product life cycle. But the greatest benefits can be realized when collaboration centers on building value that enhances a product’s daily use.
The study found that companies benefit from customer insights which in turn delivers customers benefit through product satisfaction. This in turn increases sales while saving customers time and increasing their productivity. Of course, co-creation promotes loyalty and builds pride and a sense of recognition, which equally lowers customer service costs while building a strong community of customers and advocates." (Trecho retirado de "Social Media Engagement Must Enable Business Success")
Interessante este exemplo "How Amazon Might Just Have Saved Barnes & Noble":
"And Amazon’s primary competitor, Barnes and Noble, was drowning. B&N’s Nook came late to the party and was little more than an expensive Kindle on the other bookseller’s platform.
Then, something interesting happened. Two things, really. First, the Nook was hacked to make it a moderately functioning tablet computer. More importantly, B&N embraced this change and soon launched an OS that not only allowed this hack to continue but pushed hard into this space. Second, it launched a better product: a touch-screen color Nook.
Have you played with a Nook next to a Kindle? The Nook is just better.
It’s got a touch screen. Do you own a mobile phone today? If you do, it’s probably a touch screen device. Our frame of reference has shifted to touch screens on handheld devices, hasn’t it? It’s color, like most of our handheld devices are. It makes more sense. The Kindle, which cheaper by $100, is still a very attractive product that, because of the comparison with the Nook, is something we can live with – but it’s not the one we want. The first time I picked a Kindle up, I kept poking the screen expecting it to do something."
Por isso, se eu pudesse... era aqui que eu ia.
Ontem à noite tive de assistir a uma reunião da direcção da secção de andebol do pequeno mas honrado clube onde a minha filha joga.
Claro, como eu suspeitava, o tema passou por redução de custos e subida de quotas.
A reunião foi super-interessante e no final fiquei com uma sensação agradável que não consegui justificar.
Esta manhã, a caminho de Coimbra, ao reflectir sobre o que vi e ouvi, percebi o que é que tinha achado estranho e me tinha agradado tanto.
Locus de controlo no interior.
Desde o presidente da Associação Desportiva Arsenal de Canelas até aos dirigentes da secção de andebol, todo o discurso foi de locus de controlo no interior... nem uma vez se falou em pedir apoios, ajudas, subsídios. E até citaram números... sim quanto se gasta em gasóleo, gasóleo de aquecimento, electricidade, água, sandes para as atletas no final dos jogos...
Nem por um minuto o discurso do coitadinho, da vítima que suspira por um salvador no exterior passou por aquela reunião...
Ah! Se fosse um sinal, se fosse um sintoma de uma generalização em curso...
Neste postal "Segmentação retrospectiva dos clientes" referi um artigo de Storbacka "Segmentation Based on Customer Profitability – Retrospective Analysis of Retail Bank Customer Bases" onde é mencionado o Stobachoff Index.
Uma pesquisa na net permitiu-me encontrar uma interessante referência em "The strategic value of customer profitability analysis" de Erik M Van Raaij publicado por Marketing Intelligence Planning (2005) Volume: 23, Issue: 4, Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Pages: 372-381 (obrigado ao Baidu) e outra no livro de Robert C. Blattberg, Byung-Do Kim e Scott A. Neslin "Database Marketing - Analyzing and Managing Customers" do qual retirei o extracto que se segue para memória futura na minha base de dados:
"Van Raaij et al. (2003) report the first experience of a business-to-business company with incorporating customer value analysis into their marketing planning. The company, which we will call “DBM,” was a multinational firm in the market for professional cleaning products. It sold directly to end-users such as in-flight caterers and professional cleaning services, as well as through distributors. It divided its market into sectors such as healthcare, lodging, or dairy. Sales and profits had been leveling off after years of growth and DBM was worried about new competitors. Further non-product costs (e.g., costs to service customers) had been increasing. The company desired to assign these costs to individual customers and calculate customer profit.
DBM undertook a six-stage process to calculate profit at the customer level and then develop strategies based on the results:
1. Select active customers
2. Design the customer profitability calculation model
3. Calculate customer profit
4. Interpret the results
5. Develop strategies
6. Establish an infrastructure for future applications."
"The company used the customer profit curve to plot what they called a “Stobachoff” curve. This is simply the equivalent of a cumulative lift curve. It orders the customers according to profitability, and then plots the cumulative profit accounted for by these customers as one progresses from the highest to lowest profit.
shows that in this example, 75% of the customers are profitable (the curve increases up to about that point) while 25% are unprofitable. Given that the top 75% of customers accounts for 120% of the profits, the remaining 25% really drag profits down.
In this case there are a lot of profitable customers but they are subsidizing a relatively small number (at least a minority) of unprofitable customers. Note that by adding fixed costs through overhead, the firm may be distorting the true profitability of the remaining 25% of the customers. Some of these may be incrementally profitable." (Moi ici: E qual será o perfil na sua empresa? Basta recordar Byrnes para ficar com os cabelos em pé. E a minha experiência a trabalhar com PMEs, pouco ou nada habituadas ao conceito de clientes-alvo também não ajuda a melhorar o retrato)
"In the low dependence, low subsidizing cell, all customers are profitable and roughly equally so. In the low dependence, high subsidization cell, most customers are profitable but there are a few unprofitable customers who drag down total profits. In the high dependence, low subsidizing cell, there are only a few profitable customers and the rest of customers are unprofitable but not highly so. In perhaps the most dangerous case is the high dependence, high subsidization cell. In this case, there are a few highly profitable customers,
and many highly unprofitable customers. This is dangerous because if those few highly profitable customers should defect, the company would suddenly be losing a lot of money."
Pessoas de algumas empresas exportadoras com quem tenho falado transmitem-me alguma preocupação face aos próximos meses... dizem-me que o primeiro semestre de 2011 foi melhor do que o homólogo de 2010. No entanto, pressentem nas encomendas um segundo semestre de 2011 mais pessimista.
Em linha com "Recession Warning in Europe’s Periphery" (o 1º gráfico esclarece tudo...):
"“The Eurozone recovery lost almost all of its momentum in July, recording the weakest growth since August 2009 when the recovery first began. Excluding the financial crisis, the July survey was the most downbeat since the Iraq war in 2003, and consistent with a flat trend in quarterly gross domestic product."
E tendo em conta isto:
"As Ken Rogoff and Carmen Reinhart noted in their book This Time It’s Different, “Overt domestic default tends to occur only in times of severe macroeconomic distress.” The most likely window for a Greek (or other Euro-nation) default will be at a point when France and Germany are experiencing economic downturns sufficient to douse the political will to bail out their neighbours at a cost to their own citizens”. (Moi ici: Atenção à França)
As coisas vão aquecer mesmo... excepto para os panglossianos da treta.
"Menger insists throughout his work that value is essentially subjective, and that therefore economics must be in the main a subjective science. Goods have no inherent value in themselves. They are valued because they help to satisfy some human want or need."
. Não, não é um texto sobre service-dominant logic.
"in a given community the exchange value of a given increment of each good will be determined by the relation between its total available quantity and the intensity of the human need or want that it fills."
"Thus while the classical Ricardian doctrine held that the "normal" value of consumption goods was determined by their "cost of production," the Austrian doctrine holds that the "cost of production" itself is ultimately determined by the value of consumption goods.
These two doctrines can be partly reconciled in the statement that though what a good has cost to produce cannot directly determine its value, what it will cost to produce determines how much of it will continue to be made. It is the limit that cost of production puts upon the total quantity of a good produced that determines its marginal value and therefore its market price."
... Agora algo que a service-dominant logic já ultrapassou com a subordinação da troca à experiência durante o uso.
"To return to Menger: His Principles of Economics next presents a "theory of exchange." In this he points out that men do not buy from or sell to or exchange with each other merely because of a "propensity of men to truck and barter," as implied by Adam Smith, but because each man seeks to maximize his satisfactions (Moi ici: maximize or satisfice?) by exchanging what he values less for what he values more. In this way the satisfaction of all is increased. Exchange is thus an integral part of the whole process of production. (Moi ici: E para lá da troca, não esquecer a experiência do valor durante o uso ) What is being produced is value. (Moi ici: Aqui também há contribuições importantes da service-dominant logic como ilustra esta figura sobre produção versus co-criação de valor) Menger's whole theory of price, to repeat, is developed on the basis of "the subjective character of value.""
... E, para terminar uma referência à treta da macroeconomia neo-clássica:
"Now "general equilibrium" is defined by these economists (when it ever is) in highly abstract and obscure phrases; but for laymen it might be defined as a condition in which all the tens of thousands or millions of commodities and services are being turned out in the exact quantities and proportions in which they are relatively wanted by producers or consumers, so that there are no "shortages" or "surpluses." All prices reflect costs, and there is no more profit in making one commodity than any other. (In fact, there is no "pure" profit at all.) These economists admit that at any moment this condition does not exist, but they contend that there is a constant long-run tendency toward equilibrium, because when there is an unusual profit in turning out some one product, producers will turn out more of it, and when there is a loss in turning out some other product, producers will make less of it, or transfer to making something else.
The concept itself is extremely nebulous. Neoclassical economists seem obsessed today with setting up complicated algebraic equations stipulating the conditions of equilibrium or functional relations under "perfect competition" and the like, but it is difficult to specify precisely what their x's and y's stand for. They cannot refer to physical quantities, because you cannot add apples to horses, or a ton of gold watches to a ton of sand. One might add or compare quantities times prices, but what would be the meaning of the total, or any of the parts that make it up? The price, even of one commodity, differs from hour to hour, place to place, and transaction to transaction. The value of the currency itself fluctuates and constantly changes its exchange ratio with commodities. If we simply add or compare "values," then we must recognize that values are purely subjective. They are impossible to measure or to total because they differ with each individual.
If we pass over these fundamental difficulties, where do we arrive? Even if we assume that there may be a persistent long-run tendency toward general equilibrium, we must admit that there is also a persistent short-run and long-run tendency toward the persistence of disequilibrium.
This is not only because there is a tendency of entrepreneurs, in increasing or reducing production in response to market and profit signals, to overshoot the mark, but because individual entrepreneurs, so far from making merely automatic responses, are constantly gaining new knowledge, alert to new opportunities, changing methods and reducing production costs, improving products, innovating — turning out entirely new products or inventions. And consumers too are constantly learning, changing tastes, and demanding new products to meet new wants. So Austrian economists seldom speak of market equilibrium, but of the market process."
Trechos retirados de "Understanding "Austrian" Economics"
BTW "For Love of Laissez-Faire"
"Construtoras nacionais sobem no ranking das maiores na Europa"
3 empresas entre o top 50 europeu ... fará sentido?
Agora o que me deixou água na boca foi este sublinhado:
"Nas vinte maiores empresas europeias – nas quais se contam grupos franceses, alemães, espanholas, britânicos, suecos, um holandês, um austríaco e um finlandês – cerca de metade o total das vendas já é conseguido em contexto internacional.
Há ainda entre este grupo das 20 maiores nove empresas em que metade do seu volume de negócios já é conseguido com base em actividade fora do sector da construção."
Não sei porquê, sem ironia, lembrei-me logo the Al "Chainsaw" Dunlap...
A propósito de ""Benchmarking" em cuidados de saúde primários" algumas questões:
Um cidadão está "condenado" a frequentar uma USF ou pode escolher?
Se um cidadão não pode escolher...
Balanced scorecard tem a palavra balanceado, a palavra equilibrado por algum motivo.
Com uma aposta exclusiva na eficiência os "condenados" que se danem. Podem-me responder:
"Também vamos medir a satisfação dos utentes"
Mas se os utentes não podem mudar... não lhes adianta nada.
Num balanced scorecard para organizações públicas sem fins lucrativos, na base está o cumprimento do orçamento, está a eficiência. No topo, está a missão da organização!
Uma organização eficiente que não cumpre a sua missão está a cavar a sua sepultura. Basta chegar ao poder um Raul Castro que é logo cortada... e não terá ninguém na rua a lutar por ela.
Ontem, durante mais uma viagem de comboio, tive oportunidade de ler "Segmentation based on customer profitability - retrospective analysis of retail bank customer bases" Journal of Marketing Management, (1997) 13(5), 479-492 de Kaj Storbacka. . O artigo apresenta várias formas de segmentar clientes actuais com base numa análise retrospectiva. .
"it is increasingly difficult to build marketing activities on the notion of a market. The "markets" are fragmenting rapidly and we are moving towards a time when the only relevant segment is the individual customer. (Moi ici: Olhar olhos nos olhos gente de carne e osso em vez de enganadores fantasmas estatísticos) Taking a genuinely customer oriented view on marketing changes many of the fundamental marketing assumptions and thus marketing in itself changes."
"The proportion of profitable customers obviously varies among providers. Cooper and Kaplan (I991) suggest that, in certain industrial markets, 20% of the customer relationships stand for 225% of the total customer base profitability." (Moi ici: E na sua empresa? Qual a % de clientes que têm dado prejuízo e nunca darão lucro?)
. O artigo começa com um exemplo de segmentação retrospectiva com base no critério mais simples: o volume de vendas:
"It is also interesting to note that the customers with RV between 50.000 and 250.000 represent about 20% of the customer base and stand for approximately 90% of total customer base profitability. Hence, these groups can be argued to be the most important ones. This does not, however, indicate that the customers in these groups as individuals are the most important ones. An average customer, in the highest Relationship Volume group, contributes more than 25 times the profitability of an average customer in the group 25.000-49.999, more than eight times the profitability of an average customer in the group 50.000-99.999, about five times the profitability of an average customer in the group 100.000-249.999, and about threefold the profitability of an average customer in the group 250.000-499.999. The average profitability of customers in the small volume groups that are unprofitable is just a few hundred negative. As almost 50% of all customers, are in these groups, and as it is not possible to increase volume-based revenue (without increasing volume) it could indicate that just a small increase in the average fee-based revenue could have a major impact on the total profitability of the customer base.
As a conclusion, we note that even the simplest way of segmenting customer bases provides powerful insights in the configuration of customer relationships and creates a foundation for strategic development of products and pricing mechanisms."
. Outros indicadores usados no artigo para segmentar clientes:
profitability based segmentation
segmentation based on relatioship volume and customer relatioship profitability
E voltamos sempre ao nosso alicerce: quem são os clientes-alvo? Quem são os clientes que merecem todo o investimento? E quem são os que nos colocam numa relação ganhar-perder? Não esquecer os números de Jonathan Byrnes
Uma vez mais Greg Satell nails it com "4 Things to Know About Brand Value":
"brands are conceptual. They allow us to dream, to think of things other than logistics and pricing and firing people. Reflecting on brands help us escape from the drudgery of work." (Moi ici: As marcas fogem à matematização... mas não as marcas ôcas, porque se tornaram ôcas, porque se radioclubeportuguisaram, e já só são um nome, uma carcaça exterior. Sim as marcas que continuam a queimar as pestasnas a arranjar formas de surpreender os potenciais clientes)
"1. A Brand is a Promise
Usually when people think about brands they think about logos and marketing slogans, but a brand is much more than that. ... brand value is the value of promises made and kept." (Moi ici: Actualmente ando com outra ideia na cabeça. E quando compramos um artigo que saiu melhor do que a encomenda? E quando compramos um artigo e, com o começo do uso, o valor que lhe atribuímos continua a crescer? O potencial de valor que o fabricante podia capturar ainda mais... e, como já escrevi aqui no blogue e comentava com um empresário esta semana, é tão comum os empresários portugueses subestimarem-se... não apostam na comunicação, no marketing e, depois, são como Figos que morrem a jogar no Pastilhas para sempre... ou pior, jogam no Pastilhas e outros é que capturam o valor)
"2. Brands Have Tangible Value
There is a reason that companies spend billions of dollars every year to make promises and go to such great lengths to keep them: Money. Cold hard cash. Moolah and lots of it!"
"4. Emotions Build Brands
While brands are financial entities, they are built through emotions. As I wrote in an earlier post, emotions are like a little yellow highlighter in our brains. They’re powerful because they bypass the rational center in our forebrains and go straight to embedding themselves in our brain’s synaptic pathways.
From an evolutionary perspective, emotions helped us remember what was important. When we saw a rustle in the bushes and our best friend got eaten by a lion, it was important to be able to remember the incident without repetition (a luxury man eating lions are unlikely to grant).
That’s why as much as we would like to think otherwise, decision making tends to be driven by emotions rather than rationality. Great brands are built through emotional associations."
E como é que isso acontece na sua empresa? É deixado ao acaso ou é desenhado?
Ao identificar os intervenientes num potencial mercado que queremos criar, temos de pensar na proposta de valor para os clientes directos, os distribuidores na figura...
também temos de pensar numa proposta de valor para os compradores (clientes dos clientes), numa proposta de valor para os utilizadores e outra, ainda, para os influenciadores.
Ou seja, temos de criar um alinhamento, uma sinfonia de propostas de valor que crie um mercado em que todos tenham algo a ganhar. A esse conjunto de propostas de valor podemos chamar de... proposta de mercado para criar uma nova configuração do mercado.
Pois é essa a proposta de Storbacka e Nenonen em "Scripting markets: From value propositions to market propositions" publicado por Industrial Marketing Management Volume 40, Issue 2, February 2011, Pages 255-266. Um excelente artigo:
"markets are socially constructed, subjective realities that can be altered by different actors in the market.
economic action is embedded in networks of social relationships and that markets are socially constructed
This paper builds on the foundational propositions of the S-D logic and takes as its starting point the following assumptions: (1) markets consist of networks of market actors, (2) markets are social constructions co-created by market actors, and (3) markets are resource integrators aiming at the co-creation of value.
... organizations “produce” the environments to which they respond, through their actions and selective attention, Brooks (1995) claim that “enacted markets” are outcomes of prior transactions between actors. Thus, the market is defined by the already established relationships and this “structure” form mental barriers against other perceptions of the market. (Moi ici: Esta a maior barreira que se pode enfrentar. A barreira criada pelo nosso próprio cérebro.)
Market practices are defined as the interactions between market actors within a market configuration
markets cannot be seen as given constructions where actors compete for positions. The focal actor can, hence, make subjective market definitions and attempt to influence other to share this definition (create a “shared social construction”), i.e. the actor engages in market making.
... Scripting markets – making market propositions Market scripting can be defined as the conscious activities conducted by a market actor in order to alter the current market configuration in its favour. Central to market scripting is the subjective motive of the focal actor to align the mental models and business models of other market actors so that they reinforce the mental and business models of the scripting actor, and increase marketness. (Moi ici: Aqui entra a capacidade de calçar os sapatos do outro... algo de muito pouco português. É preciso ir para além do momento da troca entre cliente e fornecedor e visualizar a vida do cliente, e visualizar as experiências que se podem influenciar nessa vida... é preciso pensar em Brandenburger e Nalebuff e nas relações ganhar-ganhar que se podem criar. Como criar um mercado em que todos os actores estão em sintonia com a nossa empresa?)
The concept of market scripting asks for an enlargement of the idea proposed by Vargo and Lusch (2004), re-phrased as “the enterprise cannot deliver value, but only offer value propositions” in Vargo and Lusch (2008). As value is increasingly co-created in networks, in market practices participated by several actors, the argument could be that “the firm offers market propositions”, signifying that successful firms need to offer their view on how the market should be configured and engage actors in collective sensemaking activities aimed at creating a shared market view. (Moi ici: Isto é poesia... pura poesia)
... We define market propositions as resource integration promises: the scripting actor promises to enhance value creation for participating actors by creating a market configuration that makes increased density of resources and capabilities, and value co-creation possible.
... A key objective of configurations is to create harmony, consonance, or fit between configurative elements. Elements of a configuration interact if the value of one element depends on the presence of the other element; reinforce each other if the value of each element is increased by the presence of the other element; and are independent if the value of an element is independent of the presence of another element.
Several different market configurations may be effective, as long as the elements reinforce each other in order to achieve a high degree of configurational fit, achieved when the resource and capability density maximizes the network’s aggregated value creation.
markets develop and change by influencing market configurations
firms are increasingly engaged in complex market configurations where the alignment of market views becomes central for success. Firms, hence, need to offer market propositions: offer their view on how the market should be configured and engage actors in activities aimed at creating a shared market view. Market propositions are in essence resource integration promises: the focal actor promises to enhance value creation for participating actors by creating a market configuration that makes increased density of resources and capabilities, and value co-creation possible. (Moi ici: Isto é jogar o jogo num novo nível... and I love this game)
We labelled the practice of making market propositions market scripting, and defined it as the scripting actor’s activities aimed a altering an extant market configuration: to align the mental models and business models of other market actors so that they reinforce the mental and business models of the scripting actor, and increase marketness. Market scripting mechanisms are based on the performativity of all the configurative elements."
. É mesmo isto!!!
. Claro que nem todos os clientes, ou intervenientes a jusante poderão fazer parte do jogo, só os que estiverem preparados para alinhar porque vão ganhar.
Enquanto por cá a sanha nunca mais abranda:
"Os apanhadores de cogumelos silvestres que se dedicam à sua comercialização vão ser, a breve prazo, obrigados a ter uma carta de apanhador."
"The flowering of these industrial bases can be traced to the early 1990s. That is when a financial crisis forced Indian policy makers to slough off socialist policies known as the “licenses raj,” which tightly regulated industrial production and kept foreign competition out. The changes let businesses set up factories based on market demand and allowed foreigners to invest in India, exposing domestic companies to greater competition."
Temos o que construímos.
Trecho retirado de "Manufactured Goods Lead Surge in Indian Exports"
Este fim-de-semana o Aranha ligou-me para contar uma sucessão de experiências positivas que tem tido com funcionários da Worten, que o têm ajudado a fazer compras através de autêntica consultoria de compra.
Contei-lhe como não tenho tido a mesma sorte. Nem com a Worten, nem com a Staples (parece-me um caso perdido. Não basta a simpatia dos funcionários se a empresa falha nos seus processos), nem com o El Corte Inglés (sim, para meu espanto, até no El Corte Inglés de Gaia um potencial cliente pode estar minutos na zona das canetas, a precisar de ajuda e ninguém aparece)
Esta manhã bem cedo, antes de ir para Guimarães, onde estou, li mais um trecho do livro "Total Relationship Marketing" de Evert Gummesson. E, sinceramente, fiquei com dúvidas sobre o que li, porque para mim parece-me claro como água a resposta à questão que o autor coloca (talvez seja porque é feita na página 47 de um livro com mais de 350 páginas). Ora vejamos:
“A major question is wether it is possible to create a relationship if you have thousands or even millions of customers as can be the case, particularly in B2C/C2B. The B2B companies can also have numerous customers but often they have a limited number of key customers to whom they establish a close personal relationship.
… With numerous customers, isn’t mass marketing through advertising and supermarket distribution the only possibility? In mass marketing, the customer is anonymous. The contact through ‘mass communication’ is indirect, impersonal and one-way. In fact, it is deceptive to call it communication, which should be a two-way street. At best it is information, at worst it is barely noise.
In the rationalistic mode of the Western industrialized world, the cost of keeping personal relationships is too high, especially if the value proposition includes a low price or is exposed to fierce price competition. Therefore, relationships are made mechanical, which is possible by means of large-scale mass marketing, supermarkets and self-service.
. Personal relationships are substituted for packages which carry product and price information, and the consumers themselves fill carts and bags with goods.”
Ao ler este trecho a minha mente fervilhava de exemplos com a resposta como o da Tavar's. No acto de compra, no momento em que faço a troca do serviço por dinheiro, contacto com alguém que pode fazer a diferença. Quando procuro ajuda na loja, quando sou saudado ao entrar na loja, há um humano que pode fazer magia comigo e criar uma relação... há alguém que pode (lembram-se?) fazer batota.
Ao meter-se gente sem formação sobre como atender os clientes e sobre os produtos, gente a ganhar pouco... cria-se uma espiral negativa que não deixa as relações desenvolverem-se.
Há bocado, recebo um e-mail do Aranha a sublinhar este postal de Seth Godin "No such thing as business ethics". Escreve ele e sublinha ele:
"Nem de propósito, a bater naquela reflexão sobre se são os empregados da worten ou as políticas worten que me têm passado uma excelente imagem…"
"I worry that we absolve ourselves of responsibility when we talk about business ethics and corporate social responsibility. Corporations are collections of people, and we ought to insist that those people (that would be us) do the right thing. Business is too powerful for us to leave our humanity at the door of the office. It's not business, it's personal."
Aproveito para recordar as palavras de Gandhi sobre nós sermos no mundo, a mudança que queremos ver nele, ao ler as últimas palavras de Seth "Every single day he leads by example, building a career and a company based on taking personal responsibility, not on blaming the heartless, profit-focused system."
"Changing the game is hard. There are many potential traps.
... The first mental trap is to think that you have to accept the game you find yourself in. Just realising that you can change the game is crucial. There's more work to be done, but it's far more rewarding to be a game maker than a game taker. (Moi ici: A grande libertação é descobrir que o mercado onde uma empresa compete não é uma condenação eterna mas uma situação que pode ser alterada. Quando se toma consciência dessa realidade, abre-se um horizonte novo... descobre-se a possibilidade de construir o seu próprio futuro)
The next trap is to think that changing the game must come at the expense of others. Such thinking can lead to an embattled mind-set that causes you to miss win-win opportunities. (Moi ici: Nunca é demais recordar as palavras de Hermann Simon "Lear to compete peacefully: Peaceful competitors built an entire market strategy around preserving or increasing profit. They refuse to see themselves locked in a zero-sum competition for market share, which fosters a "kill or be killed" mentality. They would rather be different than be the ultimate "winner." Trecho retirado de "Manage for Profit. Not for Market Share")
Another trap is to believe that you have to find something to do that others can’t. When you do come up with a way to change the game, accept that your actions might well be imitated. Being unique is not a prerequisite for success... (Moi ici: Recordar Steve Blank "Why Pioneers Have Arrows In Their Backs")
The fourth trap is failling to see the whole game. What you don't see, you can't change.
The fifth trap is failing to think methodically about changing the game. "
"There is a long tradition in strategy of linking superior performance to the existence of imperfect competition and competitive frictions play a central role in both the industry-level and resource-level of analysis. In particular, Mahoney (2001) argues that the resource-based view is fundamentally about the set of frictions that enable the capture of sustainable rents. Without any frictions, perfectly competitive product and factor markets assure that all rents are dissipated.
As perfect competition arises when all buyers are always able to play all suppliers oﬀ against one another, the introduction of such frictions serves to moderate the level of rivalry in the market.
Markets with low frictions are those where little or no information has to be acquired for transactions and negotiations to take place. Everyone knows who is selling and what is to be sold. For example, commodity markets show very little frictions. Markets with high frictions are those where it is costly to ascertain the quality of what is to be sold to buyers and suppliers need to spend time to search for each other. (Moi ici: Julgo que esta descrição está incompleta. A fricção, a imperfeição do mercado não surge só por causa da falta de informação. Quando uma empresa se diferencia, pelo seu serviço, pelo seu produto, pela sua flexibilidade, pela relação que desenvolveu com os clientes, está a tornar o mercado imperfeito, está a introduzir fricção) Matching between supply and demand is hence imperfect. Markets for new innovative products could be characterized by high frictions as buyers need to understand if the new product ﬁts their needs and suppliers need to understand who constitutes their demand. Professional services could also be characterized as high frictions as there are both high switching costs and services can be diﬃcult to evaluate.
Obviously, as markets evolve over time, the level of frictions can change. The deﬁnition of standards, the establishment of reputations and the maturation of technologies can contribute to reduce frictions. (Moi ici: Os autores só abordam a fricção na relação entre fornecedores e clientes. Acho muito mais interessante a fricção que um fornecedor cria na relação entre os clientes-alvo e outros fornecedores ao se diferenciar) The increased availability of information through the internet for products can be seen as lowering frictions; more generally advances in information and communications technologies can be seen as allowing buyers to work with a larger and more dispersed set of suppliers."
. Até porque está de acordo com a definição de fricção dada pelos autores do artigo:
"A central aim of this paper is to introduce frictions into value-based analysis. We deﬁne frictions as impediments to the free form negotiations among all players that are assumed in the received value-based approach. The key implication of the presence of frictions is to break the assumption that all buyers are able to negotiate with all sellers. As perfect competition arises when all buyers are always able to play all suppliers oﬀ against one another, the introduction of frictions serves to moderate the level of rivalry."
. Pensemos nas empresas grandes, plenas de capacidade financeira... e como não são capazes de ser eternas...
"A leader with high value creation and a follower with low value creation emerge due to the conjunction of two factors. The ﬁrst factor, which is due to the underlying cooperative game theoretic model, is that free form negotiation allows buyers to make suppliers compete harshly against each other. Solely on the basis of free form negotiation this would be a winner-take all market, with room for only one supplier, as two identical suppliers would both earn zero proﬁts. The second factor, which we introduced in this paper, is the friction parameter which shields the weaker supplier from the brunt of competition from the stronger one. Because of frictions, which prevent some buyers from negotiating with both suppliers at the same time, there is a niche available in the market for a weaker supplier and which justiﬁes this supplier’s investment in some capabilities."
Trechos retirados de "Value Creation and Value Capture with Frictions" de Olivier Chatain e Peter Zemsky.
Felizmente ainda há vozes no mainstream que estão contra a impressão de bentos:
"Um dos grandes factores de diferenciação desta crise é que não temos política monetária. Até que ponto é que isto pode afectar a economia real?
Claro que afecta e afecta para o bem e para o mal. Tem vantagens e tem inconvenientes. O inconveniente é uma inflexibilidade; a vantagem é evitarmos a tentação de fingir que resolvemos o problema porque é preciso perceber que a possibilidade de desvalorização é uma maneira excelente de aldrabar os trabalhadores. De fingir que se ajustou e as empresas conseguem de repente ter sucesso, ganham competitividade sem fazer nenhuma reforma. Isso é o pior veneno que pode acontecer.
Um país que tem possibilidade de desvalorização e que actua perante essa ameaça com uma desvalorização vai ter um alívio imediato mas não faz nenhuma reestruturação, não resolve nenhum problema. E daí a uns tempos esse alívio, que fez com que a economia tivesse crescido, volta ao normal e o que é que é preciso fazer? Outra desvalorização. (Moi ici: Exactamente os argumentos que avançamos aqui em "Paralelismos (Parte II)" e aqui "Ainda a propósito de quelques moutons noirs")
É um make-up?
É isso mesmo. Desvalorização é dizer isto: eu agora dou-te o mesmo dinheiro mas esse dinheiro não vale o que valia. Para quem recebe é uma aldrabice. É só isso não é mais nada. A desvalorização não resolve nada. Simplesmente mascara, finge que estamos a pagar. É uma maneira tradicionalmente utilizada pelos Governos para resolver esse problema."
... Depois, César das Neves dá uma resposta lapidar que é tão rara neste país de mentalidade socialista sempre a correr atrás da protecção pedo-mafiosa do papá-Estado.
"Como é que as empresas podem ganhar competitividade neste momento? A única maneira segura de ganhar competitividade é ter olho para o negócio; é encontrar novas perspectivas, é mudar as tecnologias, é fazer cortes.
E há uma enorme quantidade de empresas que fazem muita coisa e são muito boas. (...) As empresas que existem estão neste momento estranguladas por uma enorme quantidade de medidas públicas mas são resistentes porque conseguiram aguentar coisas que nunca ninguém conseguiu. Se o Estado tirar as mãos um bocadinho do pescoço das empresas, só um bocadinho, podemos começar a ter crescimento económico muito significativo."
. É comparar esta mentalidade, infelizmente minoritária em Portugal, com a mentalidade que ocupa imperialmente a mente dos media, dos políticos, da academia e das empresas do regime:
"Mais de 700 transportadoras fecharam este ano":
"Carlos Barroso recordou que, depois da paralisação dos transportadores rodoviários, ocorrida em Março, «chegou a ser publicado um conjunto de medidas de apoio ao sector, no sentido de poder ajudar as empresas e salvaguardar postos de trabalho, mas o sector continua exatamente igual»."
. E ninguém se interroga se não existirá capacidade instalada a mais? E ninguém se interroga se não há estratégias alternativas?
"The core values of RM are found in its emphasis on collaboration and the creation of mutual value . It includes viewing suppliers, customers and others as partners who co-create rather than opposite parties.
RM should be more of win – win than win – lose , more of a plus sum game than a zero sum game.
In a plus sum game, the parties increase value for each other; in a zero sum game, what one gains is the loss of another. A constructive attitude is expected by all those involved and all should find the relationship meaningful. If these conditions are fulfilled, the relationships may become sustaining. For a supplier, it is important to retain existing customers, a fact which is increasingly being stressed. Extending the duration of the relationship becomes a major marketing goal. Too much emphasis has been put on the acquisition of new customers and too little on caring for existing customers. RM/CRM encourage customer retention and discourage customer defection well aware of the fact that attraction marketing – getting new customers – must also be persued. Although collabor ation is the core property of RM, my RM concept holds that both competition and collabor ation are essential in a functioning market economy.
RM is often presented as the opposite to transaction marketing , the one-shot deal. In transaction marketing, the fact that a customer has bought once does not forecast the probability for repurchase, not even if a series of purchases have been made.
In RM, loyalty – especially customer loyalty – is emphasized. In the ‘ loyalty ladder ’ , the lowest rung is the contact with a prospect who hopefully turns into a customer and a first purchase. Recurrent customers are clients ; those who have come back and a longterm relationship is in the making. In the next stages the client becomes a supporter and finally an advocate for the supplier.
In order to conceptually incorporate transaction marketing in RM, it can be seen as the zero point of the RM scale.
The scope of the relationships can then be enhanced until a customer and a supplier are practically the same organization. The zero relationship of RM has a price component within which the lowest price connects the buyer and the seller. Micro-economic theory advocates that price be the sole determinant of a purchase. This limitation makes the theory a blind guide to marketing management, as it only represents one extreme point on the relationship scale. (Moi ici: Ou seja, os nossos políticos e académicos só falam e concebem a economia nesse extremo da escala em que o preço é tudo... enfim, que mais dizer) The zero relationship also has a convenience component which implies that the customer often buys where it is simplest and most convenient on a certain occasion. On such occasions price is almost immaterial." (Moi ici: Como o combustível à venda na auto-estrada)
Trechos retirados de "Total Relationship Marketing" de Evert Gummesson.
"Goods-dominant logic views units of output as the central components of exchange. It developed from both a combination of Smith’s (1776) normative work on how to create national wealth through the “production” and export of surplus tangible commodities and the economic philosophers’ desire to make economics a true science at a time when Newtonian Mechanics served as the model for the mastery of nature. Accordingly, modern economic thought embraced objects (matter or goods) as having innate properties (utility) and relationships to other objects, measured in terms of price mechanisms and valuein-exchange. This economic theory became formalized in the mathematics of calculus and differential equations, and economic science became a foundation for ﬁnancially engineering and optimizing the economy and the ﬁrm."
. Como se a mecânica newtoniana alguma vez pudesse ser aplicável às relações humanas que sustentam a economia.
Trecho retirado de "Competing through service: Insights from service-dominant logic" de Robert F. Lusch, Stephen L. Vargo e Matthew O’Brien, publicado por Journal of Retailing 83 (1, 2007) 5–18
Na passada sexta-feira, enquanto fazia este trajecto de bicicleta, ouvia na Antena 1 o programa "Consistório" (O conteúdo em mp3 está aqui)
Oiço este programa com alguma regularidade para me divertir com a opinião de gente que vive num ecossistema bem longe das empresas reais e das pessoas reais de carne e osso. Nem sempre, como desta vez, consigo aturar até ao fim as barbaridades que oiço e mudo de canal.
Enquanto ouvia, aí pelo km 6, só dizia para comigo "Esta gente daqui a umas semanas estará a desdizer-se!"
Os representantes do status-quo estavam todos muito contentes, quase diria excitados, com os resultados do último Conselho Europeu (embora não chegassem ao limite do que ouvi na TSF, "A austeridade vai acabar" sic)
O primeiro, aí pelo km 5, foi Luís atirem dinheiro para cima dos problemas Delgado: "As decisões do Conselho Europeu foram um sucesso..."
Eu só me interrogava ao ouvi-los:
Mas o que é que mudou? Vão poder pagar a uma taxa de juro menor ao longo de mais anos sim. E depois? Será que Portugal e Grécia vão ter superavit? Se não está previsto superavit, o endividamento vai continuar. Portanto... treta.
Começm agora a surgir as primeiras rachas:
"Designing the Value Net for your business is the first step toward changing the game. The second step is identifying all the elements of the game. According to game theory, there are five: players; added values, rules, tactics and scope - PARTS for short. These five elements fully describe all interactions, both freewheeling and rule-based. To change the game, you have to change one or more of these elements."
"Players come first. As we saw in the Value Net, the players are customers, suppliers, substitutors, and complementors. None of the players are fixed. Sometimes it's smart to change who is playing the game. That includes yourself. (Moi ici: Recordar "Subir na escala de valor"; "Como é o ecossistema da sua organização?" e "Trazer os não-clientes para a equação da criação de valor")
. Qual o ecossistema da sua empresa? Quem intervém? Quais são as oportunidades de cooperação e de competição nas relações que se podem estabelecer e desenvolver com clientes, fornecedores, concorrentes, complementadores? O que é que os muggles não conseguem ver? Quais as hipóteses de tornar o mercado menos perfeito? É possível, faz sentido, mudar alguns jogadores? É possível trazer novos intervenientes para o jogo? Quem tem a ganhar ou a perder com a sua entrada em jogo? Recordar "Não é armadilhar, é educar" e "Não é armadilhar, é arte"
"Added values is what each player brings to the game. There are ways to make yourself a more valuable player- in other words, to raise your added value. And there are ways to lower the added values of other players. ... Just as you shouldn't accept the players of a game as fixed, you shouldn't take away what they bring to the game as fixed, either. You can change the players' added values."
. Qual é o seu valor acrescentado? O que é que a sua empresa traz para o jogo? Como é que esse valor acrescentado pode ser aumentado? Qual é o valor acrescentado que os outros intervenientes trazem para o ecossistema? É possível ganhar com a limitação do seu (deles) valor acrescentado? ...
"Rules give structure to the game. In business, there is no universal set of rules; a rule might arise from law, custom, practicality, or contracts. In addition to using existing rules to their advantage, players may be able to revise them or come up with new ones. ... Rules determine how the game is played by limiting the possible reactions to any action. To analyze the effect of a rule, you have to look forward and reason backward"
. Que regras ajudam a sua empresa? E que regras a prejudicam? Que novas regras gostava que existissem para beneficiar a sua empresa? Que contratos, por exemplo, gostava de poder assinar com clientes e fornecedores? A sua empresa tem poder para impor essas regras? Alguém pode ajudar a que isso aconteça? E alguém pode contrariar essa vontade? ...
"Tactics are moves used to shape the way players perceive the game and hence how they play. Sometimes, tactics are designed to reduce misperceptions; at other times, they are designed to create or maintain uncertainty. ... We've changed the players, their added values, and the rules. Is there anything left to change? Yes - perceptions there is no guarantee that everyone agrees on who the players are, what their added values are, and what the rules are. Nor are the implications of every move and countermove likely to be clear. Business is mired in uncertainty. Tactics influence the way players perceive the uncertainty and thus mold their behavior. Some tactics work by reducing misperceptions - in other words, by lifting the fog. Others work by creating or maintaining uncertainty - by thickneing the fog." (Moi ici: Escrevo este fog e... não posso deixar de o associar a estas frictions em "Value Creation and Value Capture with Frictions")
. Como é que os outros intervenientes vêem o jogo? Como é que essas percepções afectam o jogar o jogo? Que percepções faz sentido manter? Que percepções pretende mudar? Pretende que o jogo seja mais transparente ou mais opaco?
"Scope describes the boundaries of the game. It's possible for players to expand or shrink those boundaries. ... After players, added values, rules, and tactical possibilities, there is nothing left to change within the existing boundaries of the game. But no game is an island. Games are linked across space and over time. A game in one place can affect games elsewhere, and a game today can affect games tomorrow. You can change the scope of a game. You can expand it by creating linkages to other games, or you can shrink it by severing linkages. Either approach may work to your benefit."
. Qual o âmbito do jogo actual? Faz sentido alterá-lo? Faz sentido ligá-lo a outros jogos? Faz sentido alterar as ligações a outros jogos? . Ao olhar para tudo isto não posso deixar de pensar no business model canvas de Osterwalder... . Questões adaptadas daqui. .
"Porter states that sustaining competitive advantage involves dealing with competitive forces within a sector of industry to become distinct from competitors.
The competitive forces determine the rules of the game in doing business within a sector of industry. According to Porter, organizations act wisely if they obey these strategic rules. This implies that within Porter’s strategic reality it is not wise if organizations try to change the strategic rules, for that leads to a stuck-in-the-middle position within the sector of industry. The only two ways of becoming distinct are by adopting a ‘cost leadership’ strategy or a ‘strategy of differentiation’. Because Porter beliefs the strategic rules within a sector of industry are objective, all competitors will observe the same strategic rules and choose a strategy to become distinct accordingly. Paradoxically, this will result in the situation that strategy no longer concerns doing things differently, but by doing things the same as your competitors do. (Moi ici: O autor não está a ver bem a coisa... falta-lhe o ró) After all, if all organizations adopt either a strategy of ‘cost leadership’ or ‘differentiation’, ironically, the only way to become distinct from your competitors is to enact a ‘stuck-in-the-middle’ strategy that, according to Porter, should be avoided at all expense."
. O autor não está a ver o filme todo. A estratégia pode ser de diferenciação, e o que é que isso significa? Uns clientes gostam do amarelo, outros do azul, outros do verde, outros do preto, ... a estratégia genérica é diferenciação mas cada grupo homogéneo de clientes-alvo procura e valoriza experiências diferentes. Assim, organizar-se para servir os clientes que gostam do amarelo não é igual a organizar-se para servir os que gostam do verde. "Stuck-in-the-middle" é tentar servir em simultâneo os clientes que gostam do amarelo, e os clientes que gostam do verde, e os clientes que gostam do preto, e ... porque, como referi em "Go Mongo: "We will find a place (To settle) Where there's so much space" e em "O que não fazer é tão importante como o que fazer" o ró que descobri em "Positioning on a Multi-Attribute Landscape" de Ron Adner, Felipe A. Csaszar e Peter B. Zemsky, publicado em Março de 2010 obriga a fazer opções, impõe trade-offs.
Trecho inicial extraído de "Developing strategic self-descriptions of SMEs" de Jan-Peter Vos, publicado por Technovation 25 (2005) 989–999.
"Licenciados voltam à universidade"
Uma forma de sacar dinheiro aos incautos.
Licenciados com 7/8 anos de experiência profissional voltam à universidade para tirar um mestrado e... descobrem que vão ter de voltar a ter cadeiras que já tiveram durante a licenciatura. E pior, continuam a ser os mesmos professores sem experiência profissional a debitar aulas para profissionais, como se debitassem para os alunos sem experiência de vida, sem profissão e que continuam a depender dos pais.
Um conselho: se estiver interessado num mestrado, procure saber quem são os professores e qual o seu percurso profissional extra-académico.
Estou a tentar lembrar-me mas já não consigo recordar qual a fonte que ontem me fez chegar a "The Right Game: Use Game Theory to Shape Strategy" de Adam Brandenburger e Barry Nalebuff, publicado em Julho de 2005 pela HBR.
Interessante como um artigo escrito há 16 anos descreveu tão bem, não só o meu percurso, mas também o de muitos autores que nos últimos 10 anos se têm dedicado ao fenómeno da originação de valor.
Ainda há dias em "Os mercados como configurações (parte IV)" reflectia sobre isto:
"Unlike war and sports, business is not about winning and losing. Nor is it about how well you play the game. Companies can succeed spectacularly without requiring others to fail. And they can fail miserably no matter how well they play if they make the mistake of playing the wrong game.
. The essence of business success lies in making sure you’re playing the right game. How do you know if it’s the right game? What can you do about it if it’s the wrong game?
For rule-based games, game theory offers the principle, To every action, there is a reaction. But, unlike Newton’s third law of motion, the reaction is not programmed to be equal and opposite.
For freewheeling games, game theory offers the principle, You cannot take away from the game more than you bring to it. In business, what does a particular player bring to the game? To find the answer, look at the value created when everyone is in the game, and then pluck that player out and see how much value the remaining players can create. The difference is the removed player’s “added value.” In unstructured interactions, you cannot take away more than your added value.
Underlying both principles is a shift in perspective. Many people view games egocentrically—that is, they focus on their own position. The primary insight of game theory is the importance of focusing on others—namely, allocentrism. To look forward and reason backward, you have to put yourself in the shoes—even in the heads—of other players. To assess your added value, you have to ask not what other players can bring to you but what you can bring to other players." (Moi ici: Perfeito!!! Na linha do que escrevi em "Não é armadilhar, é educar!" sobre as empresas que tiram os olhos do chão)
. Segue-se uma frase que merece ser lida, re-lida e re-lida:
"Successful business strategy is about actively shaping the game you play, not just playing the game you find." (Moi ici: "Os mercados como configurações (parte IV)" resumido como poesia numa única frase)
"You can't see all the ramifications of the program without adopting an allocentric perspective." (Moi ici: Quem são os intervenientes no jogo? E voltamos ao esquema de ontem:
Quem participa? O que é que cada um procura e valoriza? Como criar uma sintonia, um alinhamento na cadeia da procura?)
"Looking for win-win strategies has several advantages. First, because the approach is relatively unexplored, there is greater potential for finding new opportunities. Second, because others are not being forced to give up ground, they may offer less resistance to win-win moves, making them easier to implement. Third, because win-win movez don't force other players to retaliate, the new game is more sustainable. And finally, imitation of a win-win move is beneficial, not harmful.
To encourage thinking about both cooperative and competitive ways to change the game, we suggest the term coopetition. It means looking for win-win as well as win-lose opportunities.
The game of business is all about value: creating it and capturing it. Who are the participants in this enterprise? To describe them, we introduce the Value Net - a schematic map designed to represent all the players in the game and the interdependencies among them.
The Value Net describes the various roles of the players.
The Value Net reveals two fundamental symmetries in the game of business: the first between customers and suppliers and the second between substitutors and complementors. Understanding those symmetries can help managers come up with new strategies.
Managers understand intuitively that along the vertical dimension of the Value Net, there is a mixture of cooperation and competition. It's cooperation when suppliers, companies, and customers come together to create value in the first place. It's competition when the times comes for them to divide the pie.
Along the horizontal dimension, however, managers tend to see only half the picture . Substitutors are seen only as enemies. Complementors, if viewed at all, are seen only as friends. Such a perspective overlooks another simmetry. There can be a cooperative element to interactions with substitutors.
Designing the Value Net for your business is the first step toward changing the game. The second step is identifying all the elements of the game. According to game theory, there are five: players; added values, rules, tactics and scope - PARTS for short. These five elements fully describe all interactions, both freewheeling and rule-based. To change the game, you have to change one or more of thse elements."
"It is widely believed that restructuring has boosted productivity by displacing low-skilled workers and creating jobs for the high skilled."Mas, e como isto é profundo:"In essence, creative destruction means that low productivity plants are displaced by high productivity plants." Por favor voltar a trás e reler esta última afirmação. . "Lovaglia’s Law: The more important the outcome of a decision, the more people will resist using evidence to make it."
"If an organisation is too stable it can ossify, but if it is too unstable it can disintegrate. Successful organisations work between these two conditions or states, in what Stacey called ‘the chaos zone’."
"If the customer doesn't care about the price, then the retailer shouldn't care about the cost," “It's not enough that we do our best; sometimes we have to do what's required”. "Das Leben, das uns gegeben ist, ist uns nicht als etwas Fertiges gegeben, sondern wir müssen es uns gestalten, und zwar jeder sein eigenes." "Eine Regierung, die nichts wert ist, kostet am meisten." "Forget trying to persuade them; light their pants on fire." "O futuro é o que importa. O futuro é a base do significado, é de onde vem o projecto que alguém tem para si próprio" "The single biggest problem in communication is the illusion that it has taken place."
“It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent; it is the one that is most adaptable to change.”
"o Marketing só existe a partir do pensamento estratégico, caso contrário "não resulta"" "It is difficult to get a man to understand something, when his salary depends upon his not understanding it" "Perder diversidade é como arrancar páginas de um livro. Quantas páginas poderemos arrancar até deixar de compreender o enredo?" The great enemy of the truth is very often not the lie – deliberate, contrived and dishonest – but the myth, persistent, persuasive, and unrealistic. Belief in myths allows the comfort of opinion without the discomfort of thought."
"By strategy, I mean a cohesive response to a challenge. A real strategy is neither a document nor a forecast but rather an overall approach based on a diagnosis of a challenge. The most important element of a strategy is a coherent viewpoint about the forces at work, not a plan."
"Un desastre està punt de succeir a Espanya. El malentès de la gravetat de la crisi costarà car als inversors, ja que tindrà profundes conseqüències per a tot el sistema bancari europeu", afirma.
Entre d'altres coses, Mauldin diu que "els inversors estan fumant crack si creuen que els bancs espanyols són entre els més forts d'Europa, ja que estan amagant les seves pèrdues".
“… there are no “sunset” industries condemned to disappear in high wage economies, although there are certainly sunset and condemned strategies, among them building a business on the advantages to be gained by cheap labor”
"o vencedor da vida, o optimista que vive em incesto com o próprio ego, é o traço mais frágil do líder"
"We shall not grow wiser before we learn that much that we have done was very foolish." You may not be able to change the world but can at least get some entertainment & make a living out of the epistemic arrogance of the human race.
"I wanted you to see what real courage is, instead of getting the idea that courage is a man with a gun in his hand. It's when you know you're licked before you begin but you begin anyway and you see it through no matter what. You rarely win, but sometimes you do."
“Trust your guts. But not too much!”
"Customers will try 'low-cost providers,' because the majors have not given them any clear reason not to." "
"Natal é quando as Crianças pedem e os Pais pagam. Défices é quando os Pais pedem e as Crianças pagam."
"A imprevidência dos povos é infinita, a dos governos é legal"
"What a man sees depends both upon what he looks at and also upon what his previous visual-conceptual experience has taught him to see"
“The leaders first task is to be the trumpet that sounds a clear sound”
"lamented the lack of any systematic data on the scale of unfunded IOUs that care-free politicians have handed out like confetti."
"Let them call me rebel and welcome, I feel no concern from it; but I should suffer the misery of devils, were I to make a whore of my soul..."
O problema não é o consumo. O problema é o consumo assente em endividamento."
"There are designations, like "economist", "prostitute", or "consultant" for which additional characterization doesn't add information."
When it becomes more difficult to suffer than change, you will change"
"Hope is not a strategy and a crisis is a terrible thing to waste"
The more you can see of the present, the more you can see of the future"
Yes, You can change the future, but only changing the present"
"Entrepreneurship is 'Having aspirations greater than your resources'"
“The single biggest reason companies fail is they overinvest in what is, as opposed to what might be."
"The first principle is that you must not fool yourself - and you are the easiest person to fool. So you have to be very careful about that"
"A estabilidade é uma ilusão"
"When we create the conditions of possibility, the universe becomes our co-conspirator"
Thinking about doing is not doing. Talking about doing is not doing. Doing is doing."
"'God has created me to do him some definite service. He has committed some work to me which he has not committed to another'.
"Each of us has a mission, each of us is called to change the world, to work for a culture of life, a culture forged by love and respect for the dignity of each human person.
"As our Lord tells us in the Gospel we have just heard, our light must shine in the sight of all, so that, seeing our good works, they may give praise to our heavenly Father."
"The future is not there waiting for us. We create it by the power of imagination."
"confusing testosterone with strategy is a bad idea"
"Much consulting involves the application of models to a system, as opposed to getting involved in the system as a positive change agent""
"O Portugal que pára sem orçamento é precisamente aquele que vive dele e que há todo o interesse em parar."
"credibilidade da política financeira e dos seus executores está ao nível da credibilidade de uma barraca das farturas"
"The role of the manager is thought to be reduction of uncertainty rather than the capacity to live creatively in it"
"today an entrepreneur is closer to artists than managers"
"A business without a path to profit isn’t a business, it’s a hobby"
"If no one’s upset by what you’re saying, you’re probably not pushing hard enough. (And you’re probably boring, too.)"
"Storytelling isn’t just how we construct our identities, stories are our identities"
"'He who has a why to live can bear almost any how' "
"They can because they think they can"
"Se há coisa que não suporto é misturar catequese com negócios, é a incapacidade para calçar os sapatos do outro e só pensar na nossa posição de coitadinhos, pobres vítimas indefesas dos maus e que por isso precisamos do Estado todo poderoso para nos proteger e, nem percebem na volta, os juros que o Estado cobra por esse serviço mafioso de protecção que, ainda por cima não resolve nada."
"Empathy is like a universal solvent. Any problem immersed in empathy becomes soluble."
"In victory, do not brag; in defeat, do not weep"
"Value it's a feeling not a calculation"
"An economist is someone who has had a human being described to him, but has never actually seen one."
"Don't finish first--it's not about running a rat race. Start with a better ending in mind."
"If you sit in on a poker game and don’t see a sucker, get up. You’re the sucker.”
"The 'value added' for most any company, tiny or enormous, comes from the Quality of Experience provided."
"Crediting government with the success of entrepreneurs is like crediting the guy who built Bill Gates’ garage with the success of Microsoft."
"I have found that assuming social scientists understand the difference between correlation and causality is not generally a good one."
"Promising never to raise taxes, without reaching a deal on spending, really means a high and rising commitment to future taxes."
"Some things are so foolish that only an intellectual could believe them, for no ordinary man could be such a fool"
"os bancos não financiam a economia, a poupança sim"
"I do not know the key to success, but the key to failure is trying to please everybody"
"Never be afraid to try, remember... Amateurs built the ark. Professionals built the Titanic."
"terms such as 'experiment' and 'observation' cover complex processes containing many strands. 'Facts' come from negotiations between different parties and the final product - the published report - is influenced by physical events, dataprocessors, compromises, exhaustion, lack of money, national pride and so on."
"'science in the making' is 'the consequence of [a] settlement' of 'controversies'."
"If the state wishes to spend more, it can do so only by borrowing your savings or taxing you more. And it's no good thinking someone else will pay, that someone else is you."
"All failures of strategy are rooted in the assumption that outcomes are predictable."
"Doing things like your bigger competitors is how to get killed in the wars out there"
“Uma moeda boa e forte é como a saúde. Só lhe damos verdadeiramente valor quando não a temos.”
"Life’s tough. It’s tougher if you’re stupid"
"O homem de bem exige tudo de si próprio; o homem medíocre espera tudo dos outros"
"Change is a threat when done to me, but an opportunity when done by me."
"As elites foram deixando de falar das exportações à medida que se foi percebendo que o país consegue exportar sem elas"
"Your toughest competition is the little voice inside your head telling you to stop"
"Pain is just weakness leaving your body"
"Built to last" is bad economics. Built to do something great" is the better idea. Think: "Creative destruction."
"the world is an uncertain place no matter how many Greek letter equations you affix to a problem."
"You never change things by fighting existing reality. To change s.th., build a new model making the existing model obsolete"
“No, no, you're not thinking; you're just being logical.”
"Success is not a destination. It's the trail you leave behind you."
"Winners make a habit of manufacturing their own positive expectations in advance of the event."
“You’ve got to start with the customer experience and work back toward the technology – not the other way around”
"Strategy as the "smallest set of - intended or actual - choices and decisions sufficient to guide all other choices and decisions sufficient to guide all other choices and decisions."
"When something is commoditized, an adjacent market becomes valuable"
"nature evolves away from constraints, not toward goals"
"There aren't any textbooks on what to stop doing!"
"With great power comes great irresponsibility "
"Weird things happen when you take price out of the equation for consumers"
"‘It’s so damn complex. If you ever think you have the solution to this, you’re wrong and you’re dangerous.’"
"Saruman believes it is only great power that can hold evil in check, but that is not what I have found. I found it is the small everyday deeds of ordinary folk that keep the darkness at bay. Small acts of kindness and love."
"Increasing stuff that doesn't add value dilutes existing value."
"O federalismo não é a alternativa à troika, é a troika para sempre."
"Never underestimate the difficulty of changing false beliefs by facts"
"Stressors are information"
“If you hear a “prominent” economist using the word ‘equilibrium,’ or ‘normal distribution,’ do not argue with him; just ignore him, or try to put a rat down his shirt.”
"The advantage of experiences over things for most of us is that we can make them seem unique, which = scarce, which = value"
"Pedras no caminho?
Guardo todas, um dia vou construir um castelo"
"Without risk, faith is an impossibility."
"Não posso com quem vive a achar que os outros lhe devem sempre alguma coisa."
"In a world of increasing automation, our ability to perform tasks is not nearly as important as our ability to dream. The questions we need to ask are not ones of action, but ones of meaning"
"Me arrancam tudo a força e depois me chamam de contribuinte."
"Letting people vote for expensive programs that “somebody else” will finance is a good recipe for getting people to vote irresponsibly"
"what's fairness gotta do with pricing based in value?"
"The epic battle of our generation is between the status quo of mass and the never-ceasing tide of weird."
“Price is emotional”
"There will always be a reason why you can't pursue it, until competitors create a reason why you must."
"The most important thing to study is opening theory"
"The greater the contrast, the greater the potential"
“Customers don't care about your solution, they care about their problems.”
"Todos querem conhecer a verdade, mas o que desejam é que lhes contem uma mentira em que não sejam protagonistas."
"Execution efficiency strangles innovation in the crib, but not with malice, by default.”
"Our obsession with scalability is getting in the way of unleashing the potential of the 21st century."
"The system is optimized to mitigate risk, not create value"
"Champions are made when no one is looking"
"Don't bargain on value. Half as expensive is often twice as cheap."
"Customers care about outcomes, not effort, technology, or originality."
" I can't believe it. That is why you fail."
"You don't have to pick between 1) playing the game and 2) not playing the game. You can *change* the game."