segunda-feira, maio 22, 2017

I rest my case: competitividade e CUT

Recordem o que se escreve neste blogue há anos e o que os académicos, políticos e comentadores económicos (de direita e de esquerda escrevem ou afirmam) acerca da redução de salários ou da desvalorização da moeda para aumentar a competitividade. Depois, mergulhem neste texto, "Going Beyond Labour Costs: How and Why “Structural” and Micro-Based Factors Can Help Explaining Export Performance?" de Carlo Altomonte, Filippo di Mauro e Chiara Osbat.

Alguns trechos:
"Competitiveness depends strongly on firm-level factors, such as size, organisation, technological capacity, and other supportive conditions in the economic ecosystem in which firms operate. At the same time, the attention of policy-makers has been focused on aggregate macroeconomic factors, such as labour costs and current account positions. Central banks in particular have concentrated on these indicators, which is not surprising given that their traditional policy instruments are inherently macroeconomic in nature.
we show initial evidence that adjusting traditional relative export prices for quality allows to better understand export patterns for a number of EU countries
Even though “competitiveness” is at the centre of the public debate, there is no agreement on an unequivocal definition of the concept. In particular, when looking at a narrow, measurable concept of competitiveness, the focus is in general on prices, costs, wages and exchange rates. These are important factors in determining the ability of firms to compete in international markets, especially in the short run, but there is strong evidence that - in a fully globalised world and over longer term horizons – such factors are only part of a much broader set that includes at least three main elements, as identified by the literature: (i) firm-level factors, e.g. technological ability to utilise factor endowments, capacity to specialise and exploit new and dynamic markets; (ii) structural/macroeconomic factors prevailing in the individual countries, such as labour- and product-market functioning, technological diffusion, innovation, taxation, financing constraints as well as demand and overall macroeconomic conditions; (iii) the geographical position of the country and the extent of trade frictions.
given the sizeable changes in the world market structure brought about by globalisation and the raise of emerging economies, the overall trade performance of a country is more and more likely to depend on factors beyond pure price or cost considerations. In this context, the ability of countries and firms to compete successfully will be determined by their capacity to change and adapt to new market conditions, reviewing their product mix and export portfolios beyond pure cost considerations, and by other means of enhancing productivity."
I rest my case.

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