- acção correctiva; e
- acção preventiva
"The Lean approach is a type of action learning. The basic premise is that learning is the result of (1) instruction in existing knowledge and (2) questioning to trigger personal insights. Both instruction and inquiry occur through problem solving with three broad types of problems:
- We know what we should do, but something happens to stop that, so problem solving is correcting the situation by getting back to how we already know it should work. [Moi ici: Correcção - eliminar a não-conformidade, eliminar o sintoma]
- We don’t know what we should do, or we have found out that what we know is not appropriate, so we have to figure out what we should do and then bring the situation in line. [Moi ici: Acção correctiva - eliminar a causa da não-conformidade. Mudar a forma de trabalhar]
- We know what we should do, and actually, we are doing it, but we can think of a way to do it better (add more value, generate less waste), and we’ll try different ways to make it so. [Moi ici: Acção preventiva - melhorar o desempenho do sistema]"