sexta-feira, fevereiro 26, 2010

Componentes de uma boa estratégia

Algumas reflexões de Michael Porter sobre o que define uma estratégia:
“ - What are the underlying principles that define a good strategy?
A good strategy is concerned with the structural evolution of the industry as well as with the firm's own unique position within that industry. Effects in the industry can overwhelm a good strategy. If a company finds itself in a bad industry at the wrong time, it doesn't matter how well positioned it is, to put it bluntly. So managers have to look at the dynamics of their industry and at its future trajectory.

Increasingly, the companies that will be the true leaders will be those that don't just optimize within an industry, but that actually reshape and redefine their industry.

The second principle is that a good strategy makes the company different. It gives the company a unique position. And a unique position involves the delivery of a particular mix of value to some array of customers which represents a subset of the industry.
The fundamental truth in strategy is that a company simply cannot be all things to all people and do a very good job of it. Strategy requires choices. You have to decide what particular kind of value you want to deliver to whom.
It might be that a company has a broad customer target, but it should not try to deliver every kind of value that customers might want. (Moi ici: Nunca esquecer a pergunta "Quem são os clientes-alvo?" Quem podemos servir com vantagem competitiva?) Rather, the broad competitor should concentrate on common, cross-cutting needs and concentrate on being unique in meeting them.
Third, it's not good enough just to be different. You've got to be different in ways that involve trade-offs with other ways of being different. In other words, if you want to serve a particular target customer group with a particular definition of value, this must be inconsistent with delivering other types of value to other customers. If not, the position is easy to imitate or replicate.
So there must be trade-offs between what your competitors do and what your company does. If there are no trade-offs, then everything can be easily and costlessly imitated. And that leads, of course, to the mutually destructive battle that I talk so much about. Companies end up competing for the same set of customers using the same set of inducements. This is usually a loser's game.
The trouble is that companies hate making choices, because doing so always looks dangerous and limiting. They always want the best of all worlds. It's psychologically risky to narrow your product range, to narrow the range of value you are delivering or to narrow your distribution. And this unwillingness to make choices is one of the biggest obstacles to creating a strategy.” (Moi ici: No alvo, para ajudar a responder a um desafio que me foi colocado ontem)

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