segunda-feira, junho 15, 2009

Fazer a mudança acontecer (parte V)

Continuação da parte I, parte II, parte III e parte IV.
Há alguns anos a minha pesquisa levou-me a estudar a Teoria dos Sistemas, o primeiro livro a despertar a curiosidade e a abrir uma porta para a operacionalização foi “Systems Thinking, Systems Practice” de Peter Checkland, foi esse livro que me despertou para o papel dos modelos. .
Outros livros que compuseram a minha compreensão do pensamento sistémico foram: “Systems modelling - Theory and Practice” (editado por Michael Pidd); “Tools for Thinking – Modelling in Management Science” de Michael Pidd; “Organizações: uma abordagem sistémica” de Yves Bertrand e Patrick Guillement; “Seeinf the Forest for the Trees – A Manager’s Guide to Applying Systems Thinking” de Dennis Sherwood (este título é delicioso e profundo); e “Visible Thinking – Unlocking causal mapping for practical business results” de John Bryson, Fran Ackermann, Colin Eden e Charles Finn.
Estes autores ajudaram-me a construir um suporte teórico para uma maneira diferente de ver o mundo. No entanto, foi Stephen Haines com o seu livro “The Systems Thinking Approach to Strategic Planning and Management” que de forma definite ajudou-me a desenhar uma metodologia para intervir e actuar sobre os sistemas.
Vou recorrer a alguns trechos de um livro de bolso de Haines, “Systems Thinking & Learning” para ilustrar a base da intervenção.
Primeiro a ilustração do modelo de Haines:
Understanding and Using the Model.
To comprehend our model (figura acima), we first must understand that a system is anything but a static entity; rather, it is a living, ongoing process that requires inputs, outputs, and feedback.”

“In terms of looking at those phases in order to effect change in a system, we must begin where analytic thinking would have us end up – at the output phase. We ask “Where do we want to be?” and then think and work backwards through the system phases to create the desired future state”
“When applied to problem-solving, the model focuses us on results (outputs) rather than knee-jerk solutions, and so we work toward better, longer-term answers and solutions. When everyone in an organization knows how to frame issues in this way, discussions about problems take on a new dimension – one in which clarity and focus are possible, despite all the complexity.”
Uma visão alternative do modelo é ilustrada da seguinte forma:Phase A – OUTPUT. This is the defining phase in the systems model, the output that results from the system’s activities. It leads us to the crucial question: This is the Number One question that systems thinkers ask when they are dealing with any situation or problem.

Phase B – FEEDBACK LOOP. It is at this point in systems thinking that we start thinking backward to determine what must take place for our desired outcome to occur. We ask:Phase B is where we decide how we will measure our achievement. We then feed that decision back into the system. This phase also operates as a way to see if Phase A needs more work; for example, we may find the goal has been too broadly defined and needs redefinition.Phase C – INPUT. In this phase we begin to understand where we are today so we can create strategies for closing the gap between what is happening right now and what should happen in the future. We ask the question:Analytic thinkers start with today’s issues; so they end up problem-solving isolated events. Instead, we must see today’s issues in light of desired outcomes. É aqui que o HOJE 2 é identificado, é aqui que as estruturas sistémicas que conspiram para que tenhamos os resultados actuais são identificadas.
Phase D – THROUGHPUT. Now we look at the system and its interdependencies, and ask:
With those interdependencies in mind, we focus on the processes, activities, and relationships that the system must implement in order to produce the desired outcome.”

Ao iniciar um projecto de transformação é importante descrever o objecto que vai ser alvo da transformação, quais são as suas fronteiras, onde começa e onde acaba, aquilo a que chamo o HOJE 1 onde normalmente recorro à abordagem por processos para modelar o sistema inicial.
“To begin with, you must be clear on what overall system you are trying to change. You must also be clear on its boundaries, both physical and mental. Where does it all start and end? Your preliminary question is therefore: What entity (system or “collision of systems” are we dealing with, and what are its boundaries?
This question may seem obvious, but many people fail to ask it at all. They launch into change efforts with only a vague idea of what they want to change, and so quickly run into problems. Consider this question a precondition to any intelligent, effective action and change.
The entity to be changed must be clear.”
Continua, no próximo episódio vamos apresentar um exemplo prático, um caso concreto de aplicação desta metodologia.

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