"We address in this study the question of the efficiency of different measures of HCIs [harmonised competitiveness indicators] in driving exports and imports of goods and services, thereby estimating standard export and import equations for each euro area country. Exports of goods and exports of services are found to be insensitive to the changes in price competitiveness or their sensitivity is relatively small. Estonia, Finland, Spain, France and Malta are the only countries with high reaction of exports of goods to the changes in relative prices. An important finding is that, in general, the marginal effects of the broad economy's price measures on exports are higher than the impact of measures based on manufacturing only. This implies that we should go beyond cost and price developments in the tradable sector to explain a country's exports.
...Trechos retirados de "Measuring the Effectiveness of Cost and Price Competitiveness in External Rebalancing of Euro Area Countries: What Do Alternative HCIs Tell Us?"
the relationship between imports and exports has become stronger over recent years due to the integration of many euro area economies into global value chains, altering the traditional view about the way prices and costs are affecting import flows.
The fact that a significant part of exports and imports cannot be explained in some countries by the traditional explanatory factors (demand measures and price competitiveness) as well as a small historical contribution of HCIs to export growth calls for the improvements in the so called non-price competitiveness, i.e. in the quality of products/services traded."