Julgo que a principal causa passa por gerências demasiado concentradas na gestão (boa ou má) e pouco concentradas na liderança.
"in order to capitalize on unpredictable windows of opportunity which might open and close quickly, and to somehow spot and avoid unpredictable threats, the name of the game is leadership, and not from one larger-than-life executive. The game is about vision, opportunity, agility, inspired action, passion, innovation, and celebration—not just project management, budget reviews, reporting relationships,Trechos retirados de "XLR8" de John Kotter
compensation, and accountability to a plan.
With speed low enough and predictability high enough, certain methods work just fine in organizations. But these methods cannot possibly work when speed goes up significantly and predictability (predictably) goes down. It becomes a different game. You must be able to operate with more of the pace and agility you would see in a successful entrepreneurial firm or start-up."