"Extractive institutions are so common in history because they have a powerful logic: they can generate some limited prosperity while at the same time distributing it into the hands of a small elite. For this growth to happen, there must be political centralization. Once this is in place, the state - or the elite controlling the state - typically has incentives to invest and generate wealth, encourage others to invest so that the state can extract resources from them, and even mimic some of the processes that would normally be set in motion by inclusive economic institutions and markets.Por isso é que os governos gostam tanto de fundos e quadros comunitários, permite-lhes dar um arzinho de liberdade económica e, apoiar as elites quando os seus projectos forem, eventualmente, vítimas da destruição criativa.
The potential for creating extractive growth gives an impetus to political centralization
The growth generated by extractive institutions is very different in nature from growth created under inclusive institutions, however. Most important, it is not sustainable. By their very nature, extractive institutions do not foster creative destruction and generate at best only a limited amount of technological progress."
Por falar em destruição criativa... imagino o choradinho que ainda vamos ver por causa disto "Higher education - Creative destruction".