segunda-feira, junho 08, 2009

Small Wins

Karl Weick, neste artigo de 1984, “Small Wins”, chama a importância para as pequenas vitórias.
Algo que comecei a aprender com Robert Schaffer no seu livro “The Breakthrough Strategy” e que consolidei com o uso do acrónimo SMARTa para apoiar a redacção de objectivos.
Os projectos têm de ser atingíveis, têm de ser manejáveis, para isso, têm de ter uma dimensão adequada.
O mesmo Robert Schaffer, e Harvey A. Thomson, escreveram um fabuloso artigo para a revista Harvard Business Review (Janeiro-Fevereiro de 1992), “Successful Change Programs Begin with Results”. Segundo os autores, a maior parte dos esforços de melhoria têm resultados neglicenciáveis , porque se concentram nas actividades a realizar e não nos resultados a atingir, e porque não existe nenhuma relação entre acção e consequências. Ao dedicarem-se a pequenos projectos, os gestores podem não só ver os resultados mais rapidamente como também determinar mais rapidamente o que está a resultar ou não.
Muita gente prefere dedicar-se a grandes, a grandiosos e ambiciosos projectos. Projectos que se tornam, por isso, muito grandes, demasiado grandes e muito provavelmente monumentos à treta (parte I e parte II). (talvez uma consequência do empurrar em vez do puxar, do PDCA em vez do CAPD associado ao CASD)
Boyd ao explicar como funcionou o conceito de blitzkrieg chamou a atenção para o conceito de schwerpunkt (parte I e parte II):
“Schwerpunkt represents a unifying concept that provides a way to rapidly shape focus and direction of effort as well as harmonize support activities with combat operations, thereby permit a true decentralization of tactical command within centralized strategic guidance—without losing cohesion of overall effort.

or put another way

Schwerpunkt represents a unifying medium that provides a directed way to tie initiative of many subordinate actions with superior intent as a basis to diminish friction and compress time in order to generate a favorable mismatch in time/ability to shape and adapt to unfolding circumstances."
Horst Rittel escreveu:
“· Simple problems (problems which are already defined) are easy to solve, because defining a problem inherently defines a solution.
· The definition of a problem is subjective; it comes from a point of view. Thus, when defining problems, all stake-holders, experts, and designers are equally knowledgeable (or unknowledgeable).
· Some problems cannot be solved, because stake-holders cannot agree on the definition. These problems are called wicked, but sometimes they can be tamed.”
Assim, tudo se encaminha para o mesmo propósito, apostar em pequenos projectos, projectos que podem ser resolvidos rapidamente, projectos que podem fornecer resultados palpáveis rapidamente, projectos que podem ser mais facilmente geridos.
Karl Weick chama a atenção para a as pequenas vitórias associadas a pequenos projectos:
“To recast larger problems into smaller, less arousing problems, people can identify a series of controllable opportunities of modest size that produce visible results and that can be gathered into synoptic solutions.”

“The following analysis of small wins assumes that arousal varies among people concerned with social problems, but tends to be relatively high, which affects the quality of performance directed at these problems.”

“Sometimes problem solving suffers from too little arousal. When people think too much or feel too powerless, issues become depersonalized. This lowers arousal, leading to inactivity or apathetic performance.
The prospect of a small win has an immediacy, tangibility, and controllability that could reverse these effects.”

“A small win is a concrete, complete, implemented outcome of moderate importance. By itself, one small win may seem unimportant. A series of wins at small but significant tasks, however, reveals a pattern that may attract allies, deter opponents, and lower resistance to subsequent proposals. Small wins are controllable opportunities that produce visible results.”

“Once a small win has been accomplished, forces are set in motion that favor another small win. When a solution is put in place, the next solvable problem often becomes more visible. This occurs because new allies bring new solutions with them and old opponents change their habits. Additional resources also flow toward winners, which means that slightly larger wins can be attempted.
It is important to realize that the next solvable problem seldom coincides with the next "logical" step as judged by a detached observer. Small wins do not combine in a neat, linear, serial form, with each step being a demonstrable step closer to some predetermined goal. More common is the circumstance where small wins are scattered and cohere only in the sense that they move in the same general direction or all move away from some deplorable condition.”

“A series of small wins can be gathered into a retrospective summary that imputes a consistent line of development, but this post hoc construction should not be mistaken for orderly implementation. Small wins have a fragmentary character driven by opportunism and dynamically changing situations. Small wins stir up settings, which means that each subsequent attempt at another win occurs in a different context. Careful plotting of a series of wins to achieve a major change is impossible because conditions do not remain constant.”

“Small wins provide information that facilitates learning and adaptation. Small wins are like miniature experiments that test implicit theories about resistance and opportunity and uncover both resources and barriers that were invisible before the situation was stirred up.”

1 comentário:

Raul Martins disse...

Sem dúvida... pequenos projectos... Boa reflexão que deveríamos ter sempre presente na nossa mente.