sexta-feira, setembro 28, 2007

Turning Great Strategy into Great Performance

No número de Julho-Agosto de 2005, na revista Harvard Business Review, foi publicado um artigo muito, muito interessante (a minha cópia está cheia de sublinhados), “Turning Great Strategy into Great Performance” de Michael Mankins e Richard Steele.

Descobri que até ao final do mês de Setembro de 2007 (está quase a acabar), o artigo está disponível na Internet de forma gratuita.

Voltando mais uma vez à figura que tenho apresentado nos últimos dias:E relacionemos a figura com trechos do artigo:

Quando não existe, quando se corta a ligação 1:
“In our experience, less than 15% of companies make it a regular practice to go back and compare the business’s results with the performance forecast for each unit in its prior years’ strategic plans.“… “Indeed, the fact that so few companies routinely monitor actual versus planned performance may help explain why so many companies seem to pour good money after bad—continuing to fund losing strategies rather than searching for new and better options.”

Quando não se comunica, quando se mantém a estratégia como algo estratosférico 2:
“Strategies are approved but poorly communicated. This, in turn, makes the translation of strategy into specific actions and resource plans all but impossible. Lower levels in the organization don’t know what they need to do, when they need to do it, or what resources will be required to deliver the performance senior management expects. Consequently, the expected results never materialize. And because no one is held responsible for the shortfall, the cycle of underperformance gets repeated, often for many years.”

Quando não se liga a estratégia a planos de acção efectivos 3, temos o aparecimento de uma cultura muito comum, “não passa nada”. Cumpram-se, ou não as metas, ninguém é responsabilizado:
“In many companies, planning and execution breakdowns are reinforced—even magnified—by an insidious shift in culture. In our experience, this change occurs subtly but quickly, and once it has taken root it is very hard to reverse. First, unrealistic plans create the expectation throughout the organization that plans simply will not be fulfilled.
Then, as the expectation becomes experience, it becomes the norm that performance commitments won’t be kept. So commitments cease to be binding promises with real consequences.
Rather than stretching to ensure that commitments are kept, managers, expecting failure, seek to protect themselves from the eventual fallout. They spend time covering their tracks rather than identifying actions to enhance performance. The organization becomes less self-critical and less intellectually honest about its shortcomings. Consequently, it loses its capacity to perform.”

Um mapa da estratégia, um desenho que explica, que traduz a estratégia da organização, que mostra como cada um contribui para a execução da estratégia da organização, pode fazer milagres a nível da motivação intrínseca 4:
“At most companies, strategy is a highly abstract concept—often confused with vision or aspiration—and is not something that can be easily communicated or translated into action.
But without a clear sense of where the company is headed and why, lower levels in the organization cannot put in place executable plans. In short, the link between strategy and performance can’t be drawn because the strategy itself is not sufficiently concrete.”

Há que ser claro, há que ser explicito sobre quais as acções concretas em que temos de apostar para criar a organização do futuro, capaz de gerar os resultados futuros desejados, os resultados futuros esperados 5:
“To deliver any strategy successfully, managers must make thousands of tactical decisions and put them into action. But not all tactics are equally important. In most instances, a few key steps must be taken—at the right time and in the right way—to meet planned performance.
Leading companies make these priorities explicit so that each executive has a clear sense of where to direct his or her efforts.”

Por fim, considerando os dois ciclos da figura, 6:
“Companies that create tight links between their strategies, their plans, and, ultimately, their performance often experience a cultural multiplier effect. Over time, as they turn their strategies into great performance, leaders in these organizations become much more confident in their own capabilities and much more willing to make the stretch commitments that inspire and transform large companies.”

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