A economia é uma continuação da biologia!
A propósito de "The direction of evolution: The rise of cooperative organization" onde se lê:
"Is there an overall direction to evolution that is driven by selection? Do evolutionary processes drive the evolution of life in a particular direction? Is evolution headed somewhere?Ainda ontem em "If You're in a Dogfight, Become a Cat!: Strategies for Long-Term Growth" li sobre o exemplo da disrupção que chega para servir os clientes overserved:
The hypothesis that seems to have gained most support is that selection tends to drive increasing complexity as evolution proceeds.
If the trend is passive and there is no overall advantage to complexity, simpler organisms will not necessarily be replaced as evolution proceeds. In contrast, if the trend is universal and driven directly by selection, all organisms in all niches could be expected to evolve in the direction of the trajectory, or be replaced by others that do so. If complex organisms are favoured over the less complex overall, simpler organisms cannot be expected to continue to persist.
As Gould (1996) points out in detail, the complexity hypothesis fails this critical test. Relatively simple organisms such as bacteria are still abundant. For extended periods of time, they have not increased in complexity, nor have they been replaced by ones that have."
"Reverse Positioning Practitioners of this approach purposely reverse the trend of constant augmentation of product performance on traditional product attributes. This is not to say that reverse-positioning entrants simply "dumb down" product performance in order to offer budget prices, typical of low-end providers within a current category. Rather, purveyors of reverse positioning recognize that a growing number of consumers are simply not well served by traditional high- or low-end industry incumbents (figure 11.2).6 In such cases, high-end players offer too many enhancements that add more cost than real value. ... But low-end entries simply don't provide enough functionality or convenience to please dissatisfied consumers either....
In response, successful reverse positioning providers strip out features from high-end offerings that don't add appreciable value for many consumers, and instead add new, unexpected, and highly valued product attributes that were overlooked by existing players. The net result is a far more compelling value proposition for a potentially large segment of consumers whose needs were not served well by any current products on the market."Continua.