Acerca da velha mania dos ignorantes teimarem em querer que as PME apliquem as mesmas receitas que as empresas grandes e queridas das revistas de gestão. O que funciona para umas é veneno para as outras.
"Strategy is Context Sensitive Formulating the right strategy depends on the hand you've been dealt. For example, the appropriate focus for a profitable market leader should differ from the strategic imperatives of a weaker competitor struggling to survive. One way to quickly establish a company's current business context in order to guide strategic priorities is to evaluate competitive performance characteristics. Figure 6.1 depicts a simple framework to accomplish this. In this exercise, the horizontal axis measures market share relative to the market leader.
The vertical axis depicts a measure of profits relative to resources employed, which could be total assets, invested capital, or equity. This information is admittedly difficult to find for privately held companies, but rough estimates will suit the purpose. After placing each of the competitors within a given industry on this business-performance map, an individual company will find itself in one of four quadrants, each with clear implications for the appropriate strategic focus. Industry leaders are arrayed in the upper right-hand quadrant. These players enjoy the largest market share and profit levels, often with distinct advantages in image strength, distribution breadth, and economies of scale. Current examples include Apple, Nike, and Costco. The strategic priority for industry leaders should be to exploit their current marketplace advantages, while reinvesting in new products and technologies to preempt disruptive competition. At the opposite extreme, industry followers have low market shares and returns, and often this disadvantaged position is a sign of weak products, poor image, or high costs. ... For such companies, the only logical strategic response is radical repositioning in pursuit of a significantly different consumer value proposition. Incremental tweaks to a follower's extant strategy are unlikely to close the gap against industry leaders and will further consume what little time a follower may have left to survive. [Moi ici: Recordar "despedir é sempre resultado de uma maldade ou de preguiça da gestão" (parte V)] In the upper left quadrant of figure 6.1, some competitors are in the overperformer category, with relatively low market share, but high levels of profitability. This is a characteristic of niche specialists whose well-designed products appeal to a distinct consumer segment. ... Because of their extremely attractive returns, overperformers need to anticipate aggressive attacks from traditional and new competitors. Overperformers should commit to continuous product innovation to retain best-in-class performance or to a strategic exit for the benefit of shareholders. .... Some overperformers may perceive ahead of the market that their product category will face inevitable commoditization, and choose to exit at a high acquisition premium for the benefit of shareholders. Companies in the lower right quadrant are profit laggards, who suffer low profitability despite relatively high market share. The root causes can often be traced to high costs, weak products requiring steep discounts, poor product mix focused on inherently unprofitable market segments, or a combination of all of the above. ... The appropriate strategic response is often to shrink to grow, refocusing the company around defensible and profitable product categories."