- afirmou-se que a culpa da baixa produtividade é da troika e do programa de ajustamento (Miguel Frasquilho)
- afirmou-se que "a culpa é do Gaspar" e que é preciso capitalizar as empresas (António Marques da AIMinho)
- olhou-se para o umbigo e celebrou-se a universidade (João Duque) por causa da evolução positiva de:
- nº de doutoramentos por 100 mil habitantes;
- nº de publicações académicas por 100 mil habitantes;
- nº de citações
"Studying the causes and implications of variation in productivity across firms has become an important theme in social science. While several fields have been studying management for many decades, economists have traditionally ignored management as a driving factor explaining differences in productivity. We believe the discipline would benefit from more interaction with the management field. We have started to bridge this gap by developing a simple methodology to quantify some basic aspects of management practices across sectors and countries, and using experiments to identify causal impact.
The patterns we find in our large samples of management data lead us to believe that an important explanation for these large differences in productivity among firms and countries are variations in management practices. These are hard, but not impossible, to measure, and we hope the methodology we have developed will be refined and used by other researchers to help draw the international map of management in finer detail in additional countries, industries, and practices.
From a policy perspective, several factors seem important in influencing management quality. Product market competition has a critical influence in increasing aggregate management quality by thinning the ranks of the badly managed and incentivizing the survivors to improve. Indeed, much of the cross-country variation in management appears to be due to the presence or absence of this tail of bad performers. One reason for higher average management scores in the United States is that better managed firms appear to be rewarded more quickly with greater market share and the worse managed forced to rapidly shrink and exit."