"industrial value production was conceptualized in terms of the value chain. With the chain concept, value creation is not only sequential, but also implies that value is ‘added.’Assim, quando uma empresa deste campeonato, por exemplo com o apoio de fundos comunitários, subcontrata o desenvolvimento de um novo produto muito mais "produzido", carregado de "boas especificações", ou copia um desses produtos que viu numa feira no expositor de um concorrente, ou, finalmente, consegue que o seu recém-criado departamento de inovação ponha cá fora um desses produtos, normalmente segue-se o insucesso.
For producers, industrial value was ‘realized’ in the transaction which joined and separated them from customers. Value here equaled the price which the customer paid: ‘in competitive terms, value is the amount buyers are willing to pay for what a firm provides them’; or, ‘value is what customers are willing to pay’."
A empresa, ainda imersa no paradigma industrial, pensa que por ter um produto com especificações superiores tem um produto com mais valor... e continua a sua prática de apostar tudo no momento da venda, no ponto da troca.
Annika Ravald ilustra o erro em que incorrem em "The Customer's Process of Value Creation":
"value should be approached as a customer-constructed concept rather than being production-oriented and managed by the firm. A consequence of this shift in perspective is that the customer should be regarded as a subject rather than an object in the process of value creation. In order to understand value creation from a customer perspective we hence need to a) analyze the customer’s own process rather than the service provider’s process, and b) acknowledge the customer as the prime subject in this process rather than the service provider.Onde está o investimento na interacção com o cliente? As coisas não têm valor intrínseco, o valor é atribuído pelos clientes.
But good is not a property of the thing, neither is value. Good should instead be described as a property of the concept, i.e. the individual’s interpretation of his values, desires, and preferences.
Goodness and value of objects then become related to what individuals want objects to be and do for them, i.e. the role they want goods, services, and relationships to various actors on the market to have in their lives. With reference to the axiological research tradition, we propose that the good, and hereby also value, is based on the constructs of individual perceptions rather than being a function of the qualities or attributes of a
certain offering. The essence of value creation seems to be related to how and why the customer utilises an object in terms of an individual havingbeing- doing approach. The object needs to gain value for the customer as an individual, and this becomes possible only when the object is enclosed within his/her own value creating activities. The salient role of the customer in the process of value creation is hereby accentuated – the customer is not only the prime subject in the process, he also engenders value in a process of internal interactions between experiences and his conception of the good."