rewarded through financial incentive schemes. He maintained that management was an objective science that could be defined by laws, rules and principles: if a task was clearly defined, and if those performing it were properly motivated, then that task would be efficiently performed." (Moi ici: Quantas pessoas estão de acordo com este recorte? E como ser coerente e continuar a ser consultor de sistemas de gestão sem acreditar nesta "prescription"?)
The whole mechanism is thought to be the sum of its parts and the behavior of each part is thought to be governed by timeless laws. An organization is, thus, thought to be governed by efficient causality and the manager’s main concern is with these “if-then” causal rules. There is a quite explicit assumption that there is some set of rules that are optimal; that is, that produce the most efficient global outcome of the actions of the parts, or members, of the organization." (Moi ici: Comparar uma organização a um mecanismo... essa é demasiado puxada. Não ver que uma empresa é mais do que a soma das partes é ignorar a emergência dos sistemas. Acreditar em leis independentes do tempo e em causas suficientes é ignorar a realidade.)
management, Rationalist Teleology is stripped of the quality of the unknown, and also of the ethical limits within which action should take place, to provide a reduced Rationalist Teleology. In fact scientific management does what Kant argued against. It applies the scientific
method in its most mechanistic form to human action, whereas Kant argued that it was inapplicable in any form simply because human freedom applies to all humans."
they always formed themselves into groups that soon developed customs, duties, routines and rituals and argued that managers would only succeed if these groups accepted their authority and leadership. He concluded that it was a major role of the manager to organize teamwork and so sustain cooperation. Mayo did not abandon a scientific approach but, rather, sought to apply the scientific method to the study of motivation in groups."
should do in a way that respects and motivates others (Rationalist Teleology) so that the designed set of rules will produce optimal outcomes (secular Natural law Teleology). Because they are governed by efficient cause, organizations can function like machines to achieve given purposes deliberately chosen by their managers. (Moi ici: Tanta ingenuidade!!!) Within the terms of this framework, change of a fundamental, radical kind cannot be explained.
Such change is simply the result of rational choices made by managers and just how such choices emerge is not part of what this theory seeks to explain. The result is a powerful way of thinking and managing when the goals and the tasks are clear, there is not much uncertainty and people are reasonably docile, but inadequate in other conditions. Truly novel change and coping with conditions of great uncertainty were simply not part of what scientific management and its Human Relations consort set out to explain or accomplish."
- "Estratégia, mapas errados e self-fulfilling prophecies" Este trecho é fundamental e poético "“Strategic plans are a lot like maps. They animate people and they orient people. Once people begin to act, they generate tangible outcomes in some context, and this helps them discover what is occurring, what needs to be explained, and what should be done next. Managers keep forgetting that it is what they do, not what they plan that explains their success. They keep giving credit to the wrong thing – namely, the plan – and having made this error, they then spend more time planning and less time acting. They are astonished when more planning improves nothing.”" Mas não basta um mapa qualquer, tem de ser um mapa em que acreditemos à partida, ainda que depois o alteremos.
- "Confiar a razão? (parte I)"
- "Eclesiastes, acção e sensemaking"
- "O tempo de feedback associado a um plano (plano I)"