"The story of the twentieth century is invariably told as a political and military narrative: first, the war to end all wars that did not; then, the democracies’ world war to defeat fascism; and finally, the successful struggle to defeat Soviet communism. Far less well appreciated, but arguably more relevant to the present, is the economic subtext of this same history: the rise and partial fall of large-scale, centralized production.Até Magnitogorsk aparece:
At the start of the twentieth century, the economic landscape was transformed by the emergence of an entirely new form of business entity, larger and more complex than any that had existed previously. The major impetus behind this growth was what economists call economies of scale and scope: the ability to reduce costs per unit by (1) increasing the quantity of output and/or (2) integrating within a single business entity the different stages of production, from the acquisition of raw materials to the assembly of a finished product."
"The harnessing of the power of scale and scope was a global phenomenon. It found its most dramatic expression not in Standard Oil, Ford Motor Company, or Thyssen Steel, but rather in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Absolute political control allowed the Soviets to undertake an unprecedented experiment: placing the entire productive apparatus of a nation under the control of what was, at least in theory, a single administrative authority. If, as appeared to be the case in the 1930s, economic power was rooted in the ability to harness economies of scale and scope, then the decentralized market economies of the West seemed to have ample reason to worry. No one would be able to match the Soviets."Recordar: