terça-feira, setembro 18, 2012

Distribuição de produtividades

Um interessante artigo, muito recente, "What Do Managers Do? Exploring Persistent Performance Differences among Seemingly Similar Enterprises" de Robert Gibbons e Rebecca Henderson, sobre um tema que me fascina, a persistente distribuição de produtividades entre as empresas de um mesmo sector de actividade dentro de um mesmo país, sujeitas às mesmas regras laborais e cultura.
"We begin from the observation that many competitively significant management practices cannot be reduced to well-defined action rules that can be specified ex ante and verified ex post. Instead, the implementation of these management practices is critically dependent on context. (Moi ici: Do contexto e da história)
The state-dependent actions necessary to meet these expectations cannot be the subject of a formal contract. We therefore focus on relational contracts—roughly, understandings that the parties share about their roles in and rewards from cooperating together, but understandings so rooted in the details of the parties’ relationship that they cannot be shared with a court.
First, managers may have problems of perception— they do not know they are behind. Second, managers may have problems of inspiration—they know they’re behind, but they don’t know what to do about it. Third, managers may have problems of motivation—they know they’re behind and they know what to do, but they lack incentive to adopt new practices. Fourth, managers may have problems of implementation—they know they’re behind, they know what to do, and they’re trying hard to do it, but they nonetheless cannot get the organization to get it done.
there exist very significant productivity differences across plants in a wide range of industries and geographies. Furthermore, these findings on productivity differences have been shown to be robust to concerns about selection and simultaneity, as well as the distinction between physical- and revenue-based productivity. They have also been shown to be persistent over time and to be surprisingly resistant to the pressure of increasing competition."

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