domingo, março 14, 2010

A paixão por procedimentos (parte II)

"Procedures can erode expertise.
When we get comfortable with procedures, we may stop trying to develop more skills. Why bother, if the procedures usually get the job done?
A number of studies have shown that procedures help people handle typical tasks, but people do best in novel situations when they understand the system they need to control. People taught to understand the system develop richer mental models than people taught to follow procedures."
"Procedures can mislead us.
The biggest worry is that following procedures can lead us in the wrong direction and that we won’t notice because the reliance on procedures has made us so complacent."
Á atenção dos auditores "Skilled performers need latitude to depart from procedures."
Recordo um velho episódio de um dos meus heróis dos anos 80 "Macgyver". Um episódio em que MacGyver tem de vencer Sandy, um computador:
"MacGyver: Well, old Sandy sure has a mind of her own, doesn't she?
Jill: Yes, but she thinks like me. So I should be able to think it through and find her pattern, logically and rationally.
MacGyver: Without the emotion, right?
Jill: That's what gives her the edge. People and emotion can't get in her way.
MacGyver: Well, I say we trust our instincts—go with our gut. You can't program that. That's our edge."
"In summary, we can see that procedures are insufficient, can get in the way, can interfere with developing and applying expertise, and can erode over time. Procedures work best in well-ordered situations in which we don’t have to worry about changing conditions and we don’t have to take context into account to figure out how to apply the procedures, or when to jettison them"
"Procedures are most useful in well-ordered situations when they can substitute for skill, not augment it. In complex situations—in the shadows—procedures are less likely to substitute for expertise and may even stifle its development.
Here is a different statement that I think works better: In complex situations, people will need judgment skills to follow procedures effectively and to go beyond them when necessary."
Portanto, quando um consultor que nunca teve outra ocupação para além de consultor, postula, decreta, ordena a criação de procedimentos por tudo e por nada... beware!!!
"Like all tools, procedures have strengths and weaknesses. Although I have been describing their limitations, we certainly shouldn’t discard them. Here is what they buy us:
  • They are training tools. They help novices get started in learning a task.
  • They are memory aids. In many jobs they help workers overcome memory slips.
  • They can safeguard against interruptions.
  • They reduce workload and make it easier to attend to critical aspects of the task.
  • They are a way to compile experience and historical information. Procedures are useful when there is a lot of turnover and few workers ever develop much skill.
  • They can help teams coordinate by imposing consistency. If the people on the team know the same procedures, they can predict one another’s next moves."
"The downside of procedures is that they usually aren’t sensitive to context. In complex situations we may not know when to start and end each step. The people making up procedures usually try to substitute precision and detail for tacit knowledge."
Para terminar, uma sugestão que descobri na prática, não há muito tempo:
"When we do want to teach some procedures, the typical way is to present the standard procedures and make everyone memorize them.
Here is another way to teach procedures: Set up scenarios for various kinds of challenges and let the new workers go through the scenarios. If the procedures make sense, then workers should get to see what happens when they depart from the optimal procedures. When procedures are taught in a scenario format, people can appreciate why the procedures were put into place and can also gain a sense of the limitations of the procedures. This scenario format seems to work better than having people memorize the details of each step."

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