No livro "Big Strategies for Small Business Exceptional Projects in Europe" editado por Hans-Joachim Gögl e Clemens Schedler encontrei mais informações.
Manzano é uma região de Itália onde há muitas décadas se fabricam cadeiras de madeira. Cadeiras sem marca distribuídas por empresas exteriores.
Com a abertura da China e da Europa de Leste o fabrico de cadeiras foi duramente atingido.
Numa região muito individualista, alguns empresários, num movimento bottom-up, criaram uma organização, a Promosedia, para promover o futuro da produção de cadeiras.
Eis uma lista das actividades que a Promosedia está a levar a cabo para ajudar a transformar produtores em fazedores de marcas:
- "Manages and organizes the annual exhibition Salone internazionale della sedia in Udine, Friuli.
- Hosts Caiazza Memorial Challenge, an international design competition that selects the top three works by young designers under 40 and recognizes outstanding student designs.
- Sponsors the “TopTen Award” for the best technologically and formally innovative design products.
- Publishes the semiannual newsletter Chairs.
- Organizes periodical information events on design, technology, environmental protection, etc.
- Organizes group presentations at other international trade fairs: in recent years, for example, in Moscow and Dubai.
- Marchio collettivo di qualità: development of a label that will ensure quality for the consumer by standardizing categories for chairs from Manzano (similar to the DOC for wine)."
- nos anos 60 do século passado - "“We couldn’t keep up with the demand for chairs. We didn’t have the production capacity. That was the problem – back then . . .”
- a oferta era menor do que a procura - "“Up until then, if people wanted to buy a chair, they came to us." As fábricas italianas produziam e os grandes distribuidores alemães vinham, compravam, aplicavam a etiqueta made in Germany e vendiam por 3 vezes mais caro com a sua própria marca.
- a boleia da moeda fraca - "But with the new millennium the period of unbridled growth once again came to an abrupt end. On the one hand, Italy and with it the Friulian chair manufacturers were hit especially hard by the introduction of the euro. “Up until then,” explains Mansutti, “the Italians had a significant competitive edge over the other European countries: the weak lira. We definitely profited from this, especially on the German market. Every two or three years we would have another welcome currency devaluation of 20 percent.”
- a chegada da China et al. - "At about the same time, the Chinese and Indonesian cheap producers launched an offensive on the furniture market. They produce their products dirt cheap and they’re not just making white plastic chairs anymore either. “They’ve got a lot of nerve, too,” one businessman tells us. “At the exhibition in Udine their advertising pitch claims they can produce any chair the customer wants. One of them even had a copy of my catalogue at his stand. A customer had apparently asked for an estimate on a model from my product line.”
- a abertura da Europa de Leste - "EU enlargement has brought cheap-labor countries like the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland into the union."