segunda-feira, agosto 25, 2014

Dedicado aos caçadores de unicórnios (parte III)

Parte I e parte II.
"As measured by flows of jobs and workers across employers, U.S. labor markets became much less fluid in recent decades.
An aging workforce and a secular shift away from younger and smaller employers partly account for the long-term decline in labor market fluidity.
But we also identify strong reasons for concern about the consequences of reduced fluidity for productivity growth and real wages.
higher training costs as an important factor behind reduced fluidity. The economic consequences are likely to turn on why training costs rose. If they rose in response to technological changes, then returns in the form of more productive workers, better values for consumers, and higher profits presumably compensate for the extra training costs. In contrast, if they rose in response to policies that restrict occupational labor supply and insulate incumbents from competition, they are unlikely to generate net economic benefits.
That brings us to our third reason for concern: the role of government regulations and policies that hamper reallocation. For example, government restrictions on who can work in which jobs have expanded greatly over time.
the fraction of workers required to hold a government-issued license to do their jobs rose from less than 5 percent in the 1950s to 29 percent in 2008. Adding workers who require government certification, or who are in the process of becoming licensed or certified, brings the share of workers in jobs that require a government-issued license or certification to 38 percent as of 2008. These observations suggest that training costs rose over time, in part, because regulations governing occupational labor supply became increasingly restrictive. In any event, the spread of occupational licensing and certification raises the cost of occupational mobility, one form of job mobility."
Trechos retirados de "Labor Market Fluidity and Economic Performance" de Steven J. Davis e John Haltiwanger

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