sábado, fevereiro 21, 2009

Contar estórias (parte I)

Durante milhões de anos à noite os nossos antepassados, em volta de uma fogueira, trocavam experiências, contavam estórias e passavam conhecimento uns aos outros, cimentavam a união do grupo ou, muito simplesmente, divertiam-se.
Esse passado não foi apagado e, por isso, gostamos todos de ouvir e de contar estórias.
Nas empresas, nas oganizações, as estórias continuam a ser um factor de integração, de socialização, de transmissão de conhecimentos, de criação de uma cultura própria.
Gary Klein no seu livro "Sources of Power - How People Make Decisions" escreve:
"We would be dazzled if we had to treat everything we saw, every visual input, as a separate element, and had to figure out the connections anew each time we opened our eyes or moved them from one fixation point to another. Fortunately, that is not necessary. We see the world as patterns. Many of these patterns seem to be built into the way our eyes work. We have detectors to notice lines and boundaries. The world is organized in our eyes to highlight contrasts, before any information reaches our brains. We have other powerful organizers to frame the visual world into Gestalts, so we naturally group things together that are close to each other.

we similarly organize the cognitive world – the world of ideas, concepts, objects, and relationships. We link these up into stories.

A good story is a package of different causal relationships – what factors resulted in what effects. The more complexity and subtlety, the more there is to be learned. If the story gets too confusing, though, it stops working. It has to draw together different components clearly and memorably and show their connection.

… a story, where the outcome is affected by many important variables or causal factors, each of which needs to be described and to have its influence traced. The story is a package for describing the important causes and allowing the listener to think of other possible causes for the events.
Perhaps we value stories because they are like reports of research projects, only easier to understand, remember, and use.

The method we have found most powerful for eliciting knowledge is to use stories."
Quais as características de uma boa estória? Já escrevemos sobre isso aqui Persuasão mas na segunda parte a opinião de Klein.

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