quinta-feira, maio 25, 2006

O regresso dos clientes (II) ou confecção made in America

Textil made in America.

Retirado deste precioso livro:

… “what makes it possible to do well in the U.S. market with fierce competition from foreign-made products is a business model focused on fast response to retailers: filling orders quickly, holding just the right amount of inventory, and being able to replenish orders right way - in contrast to the four- to six-month lead times needed for placing and receiving orders from the contractors in China. In many of the companies that we studied, the ability to get goods to final customers rapidly turned out to be one of the most important offsets to the lower labor costs of overseas production.”

Se esta é a vantagem, o que uma organização tem de fazer, é procurar incessantemente novas formas de aumentar a sua vantagem competitiva, ou de não a deixar diminuir.

… “customers used to choose from collections the designers presented five times a year. But demand increased for special items and modifications, and by 1988, they were up to eight or nine collections a year. Today, customers request particular garments and adaptations of the samples on a non-stop basis. The designers meet every other day or two to exchange reactions to the looks they are seeing in the shops and on TV.”

E artigos de electrónica de consumo “Made in Japan”

Tom Peters no seu fantástico livro “Re-imagine” refere que:

Um trabalhador de Singapura ganha tanto como:

  • 3 trabalhadores na Malásia;
  • 8 trabalhadores na Tailândia;
  • 13 trabalhadores na China; e
  • 18 trabalhadores na Índia.
Neste site descobri esta “pedra de Rosetta”:

Que permite comparar os custos em Singapura e no Japão e; por tabela, comparar os custos no Japão com a Malásia, Tailândia, China e Índia.

No entanto:

“When Kenwood moved production of portable mini-disk players from a factory in Malaysia to their Yamagata, Japan, plant in 2003, they discovered they could exploit short-lived consumer trends. It used to take thirty-two days to get portable minidisk players from Malaysia to stores in Japan. Now when the players are made in the Yamagata plant, they can order them at 3 P.M. one day and ship them out the next day. The managers calculated that bringing production back to Japan lowered total costs (including raw materials and transportation) by 10%.

And there were unexpected benefits, too. For each holiday and special event, it turns out that customers like different colors.”

No entanto, a administração da Fujitsu acredita que:

“Domestic production allows production to be close to design. We can’t change production in response to design changes so easily if our factories are in Taiwan or in China. It’s just hard to communicate small changes, and when things go wrong in the quality of the product, we need to get this information back rapidly to the designers”

Ou seja, é preciso ter um modelo que justifique a sustentabilidade do negócio. A base, a matéria-prima para o desenho do mapa da estratégia!

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