Num curto espaço, um resumo interessante do que aconteceu com a globalização:
"It makes little sense today to play catch-up with a Chinese model that may have worked well in its own time and place, but one which the next wave of the digital technology looks set to steam-roll into oblivion."O que conhecemos e resultou nos anos 60 e 80 em Portugal está morto e enterrado, o mundo muda, o contexto e as soluções têm de ser outras:
"The end of the last century heralded the third wave of industrialisation that led to the globalization of manufacturing. Rapid advances in information technology and global connectivity made for the seamless integration of design, the sourcing of raw materials, labour, capital and manufactured components across multiple locations. The rapidly evolving ecosystem created networked global supply chains located wherever comparative advantages made them most cost effective. The world shrank. Emerging economies betting on low labour costs became the world’s sweat shops, but prosperity also spread. So did entrepreneurship. Asia became the centrepiece of this boom and China the world’s factory. From a 5% share of the world’s manufacturing in 1995, by 2011 China’s share had climbed to 27%.[Moi ici: STOP! Voltar a ler este sublinhado e deixar assentar a ideia do impacte que isto terá tido nas PME de Portugal... esqueça o euro]Tudo coisas que já escrevemos por aqui há anos e que ainda não chegaram em toda a sua plenitude aos media porque isso seria reconhecer o fim do modelo que as suporta a elas ou aos seus financiadores.
In the forthcoming wave now, information technology is once again set to disrupt the way products are manufactured, shipped, and sold. Notably, this disruption is happening not just by way of moving manufacturing jobs back to the developed world.[Moi ici: O mainstream acredita que o futuro passa por automatizar a produção e remover o último humano das fábricas]
As both manufacturing and services more and more integrate robotics, 3D printing, the internet of things comes into its own – the need to outsource to regions with low cost labour is off set by the far lower supply chain risks of local manufacturing. Economies of scale lose their relevance. Future manufacturing sees greater advantage in decentralization which places it closer to the consumer. Robotics aided additive manufacturing can customize products to individual needs at costs only marginally higher than mass produced batches, and the cost difference is shrinking. The smart manufacturing facility of the future provides flexible assembly lines that can be re-programmed. [Moi ici: "The smart manufacturing facility of the future" não vai ter linhas de montagem! Recordar a Canon há 10 anos] The age of mass production, yields to mass customization. In the new automated factory of the future the manufacturing itself becomes a service.[Moi ici: Até se remover o factor "mass" e a democratizção da produção fazer desaparecer o paradigma da fábrica do século XX e o paradigma do emprego do século XX]