segunda-feira, outubro 17, 2016

Push + pull + habit + anxiety

Outro bocado muito bom do livro de Alan Klement, "When Coffee and Kale Compete":
"The forces of progress are the emotional forces that generate and shape customers’ demand for a product. They can be used to describe a high-level demand for any solution for the customers’ JTBD or the demand for a specific product.
Two groups of forces work against each other to shape customer demand. The first group is push and pull, or the forces that work together to generate demand. The other group is habit and anxiety, or the forces that work together to reduce demand. In the middle, you have the customer, who experience all these emotions at once.
Customers experience some combination of these forces before they buy a product, as they search for and choose a product, when they use a product, and when they use that product to make their lives better.
Demand isn’t spontaneously generated. … Some combination of events always comes together to generate that demand. We call those forces push and pull.
Push. People won’t change when they are happy with the way things are. Why would they? People change only when circumstances push them to be unhappy with the way things are. These pushes can be external or internal.

Pull. If a push is the engine that powers customer motivation, the pull is the steering wheel that directs motivation. Customers experience two kinds of pulls: (1) an idea of a better life and (2) a preference for a particular product.
The pull for a better life. People don’t buy products just to have or use them; they buy products to help make their lives better (i.e., make progress).

The pull toward a solution. The pull for a better life is what motivates customers to begin searching for and using a solution against their struggle.

There are many known and unknown factors to consider about why customers choose one solution over another. However, when we focus on the forces that generate demand, we see that the context of the customer’s push shapes his or her struggle. This affects the criteria used to choose one solution over another.

Variations in the pushes that customers experience also explain why the same customer might go back and forth between different products for the same JTBD.

There is no demand—and therefore no JTBD—unless push and pull work together.

If your product doesn’t help customers make progress, price doesn’t matter.

Demand-reduction forces are just as important to understand as demand-generating forces.

For example, a struggling customer may be willing to buy your product but doesn’t because he fears that it’s too hard to use. Instead, he sticks to an old way of doing things, even though he’s unhappy with it. In this example, the result for you is the same, regardless of whether the customer stays with the current way of solving problems or buys a competitor’s solution. You miss out on a paying customer.
Two examples of demand-reducing forces are anxiety and habit.

Anxiety-in-choice. We experience anxiety-in-choice when we don’t know if a product can help us get a Job Done. It exists only when we’ve never used a particular product before.

Anxiety-in-use. After customers use a product for a JTBD, the anxiety-in-choice largely disappears. Now their concerns are related to anxiety-in-use. For example, “I’ve taken the bus to work several times. But sometimes it’s late, and other times it’s early. I wish I knew its arrival time in advance.” In this case, we know a product can deliver progress, but certain qualities about it make us nervous about using it.

Habit. Just as customers experience different types of anxieties, customers experience different types of habits: habits-in-choice and habits-in-use. Understanding customers’ habits plays an important part in your ability to offer innovations.
Habits-in-choice. These are the forces that exist at the moment of decision and prevent a customer from switching from one product to another.


Habit and anxiety are your silent competitors. At its core, innovation is about helping customers make progress. Get them to that better version of life that they aspire to. It’s not just about helping customers break constraints by pulling them with flashy, new features. A lot of not-so-sexy work is involved.

I ferociously attack habits as I would any competing product. I recommend you do the same. You can lose revenue because you haven’t accounted for people’s habits, or you can lose revenue because your product is inferior to a competing one. In both cases, the result is the same: you lose revenue."

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