"Theories are neither hunches nor guesses. They are the crown jewels of science.Nunca esquecerei as aulas de Filosofia do meu 11º ano com o Professor Guedes Miranda, acerca de da mecânica quântica, do indeterminismo e da incerteza de Heisenberg. E nunca esquecerei os recortes do Expresso que ainda guardo com a entrevista a Popper quando veio a Lisboa para as Conferências do Fim do Século, convidado por Mário Soares. Banho de humildade epistemológica para sempre.
“In science, the word theory isn’t applied lightly,” Kenneth R. Miller, a cell biologist at Brown University, said. “It doesn’t mean a hunch or a guess. A theory is a system of explanations that ties together a whole bunch of facts. It not only explains those facts, but predicts what you ought to find from other observations and experiments.”
It’s helpful, he argues, to think about theories as being like maps.
“To say something is a map is not to say it’s a hunch,” said Dr. Godfrey-Smith, a professor at the City University of New York and the University of Sydney. “It’s an attempt to represent some territory.”
A theory, likewise, represents a territory of science. Instead of rivers, hills, and towns, the pieces of the territory are facts.
“To call something a map is not to say anything about how good it is,” Dr. Godfrey-Smith added. “There are fantastically good maps where there’s not a shred of doubt about their accuracy. And there are maps that are speculative.”"
Trechos retirados de "In Science, It’s Never ‘Just a Theory’"