"Zara didn't have to invent a brand new product to become the world's biggest fashion retailer. It just had to invent a new process. And process innovation is dominating the global economy."(Moi ici: Aquilo a que o artigo chama "process" é aquilo a que comummente se chama "modelo de negócio").
"But Zara's most important contribution isn't a new product. It's a newUm modelo de negócio tem duas partes: as escolhas e as consequências dessas escolhas:
process(Moi ici: Um novo modelo de negócio): fast fashion, directed by customers, and enabled by a short manufacturing leash. (Moi ici: O que obriga a ter a produção próxima do consumo) Process innovation(Moi ici: business model innovation) is the story of modern retail -- especially here in the U.S. Amazon showed us you can shop with a mouse, deleting thousands of storefronts in the process. Groupon and LivingSocial moved the coupon business to our inbox, arguably helping merchants clean out their slowest inventory. And then there's Walmart, the largest employer in the United States, which used supply chain management to push down prices, forcing local businesses to follow, and increasing productivity throughout the retail business."
"Rather than hire world-class designers, Zara, which is based in Spain, politely copies them. Then it relies on a global network of shopper-feedback to tweak their designs. Corporate HQ absorbs thousands of comments and sends tweaks to their manufacturers in Europe and Northern Africa, who literally sew the feedback into their next line of clothes. The clothes are shipped back, and the stock changes so quickly that shoppers are motivated with a "now-or-never" choice (Moi ici: O que gera, como consequência, que os consumidores visitem mais vezes as lojas, porque todas as semanas há novidades) each time they try on a blouse that won't be in-store in a few weeks. It's the user-generated approach to fast fashion.
That's the design challenge. How about advertising? Basically, Zara doesn't do it. There is no ad budget. Instead, the company spends ungodly amounts of money buying storefronts next to luxury brands to own the label of affordable luxury:"