"in a number of sectors today, strategy comes from players across a range of industries, in which they both collaborate and compete.Trechos retirados de "Strategic Planning in Turbulent Environments: A Social Ecology Approach to Scenarios" de Rafael Ramírez e John W. Selsky, publicado por Long Range Planning em 2014.
most mainstream strategic planning approaches conflate strategy with competition. The neoclassical approach thus relegates cooperative and collaborative initiatives to a tactical position, marginal to the main strategic activity. Here alliances and joint ventures tend to be undertaken in order for a focal firm to extract value from them for its own goals, at the expense of not only other alliance participants but also other players such as customers and suppliers.
greater competitive intensity can damage the wider field of action through negative externalities not absorbed by the producers.
When the environment which companies inhabit changes, or is considered that it might soon change, companies engage in strategic renewal efforts to reinvent themselves, ... When they become adept at this, the routines they utilize become dynamic capabilities that can be used repeatedly for their own strategic purposes.
the neoclassical approach to strategic planning is challenged by environmental jolts, and by discontinuities and bifurcations. This is because neoclassical approaches rely on competitive patterns (actions and reactions among players) observed in past behavior, and which are extrapolated into the future in terms of forecasts. In addition, the neo-classical view assumes that the broader context for strategic action - the macro situation which envelops the “industry” - will remain stable in the sense that the fundamental structure of the environment will not change as a result of the players' intensified or sped-up competitive actions.
The socio-ecological approach to strategic planning is grounded in an open-systems view of an organization's strategic situation. As opposed to the firm as the focal unit of analysis in the neoclassical approach, it is the shared field of interorganizational action that is the core unit of analysis. It is within this broader perspective that the socio-ecological approach seeks to understand the position and behavior of actors (for our purposes, organizations) in that field. For instance, the business ecosystem model offered by Iansiti and Levien, comprised of a central “keystone” firm and complementary firms in dynamic interaction over time, is a step in the direction of a field-based, socio-ecological approach to strategy
In the socio-ecological approach, collaborative interactions enjoy a higher profile as integral components of corporate and business strategic planning than in the neoclassical approach. Yet -importantly- the emphasis is not within the “industry”, not on horizontal partnering with competitors, and not on vertical ventures with value-chain partners. Instead, here collaboration is with diverse actors and stakeholders of the broader fields in which organizations operate in order to together engage contextual level forces that affect or may affect all actors in a field.
Socio-ecologically based strategic planning acknowledges commercial and competitive challenges, but is more sensitized to macro level disruptions and unpredictable uncertainty. It suggests that, when unpredictable uncertainty becomes the central concern of strategic planners, the strategic situation has shifted into a different, turbulent “texture”, which calls for a different mode of strategic planning."
sábado, agosto 26, 2017
O contexto tem muita força (parte IV)
Parte I, parte II e parte III.