Continuando a saborear a reflexão de Christian Grönroos e Johanna Gummerus em "The service revolution and its marketing implications: Service logic vs service-dominant logic".
"If co-creation of value is used analytically, rather than in a metaphorical sense, we must ask: what is the role and focus of co-creation, who is involved, and when does value co-creation occur? The key to answering these questions is the interaction concept.
Although “enterprises can offer their applied resources for value creation and collaboratively (interactively) create value following acceptance of value propositions, but cannot create/deliver value independently”, the meaning of this assertion gets disguised by the claim that firms and customers are always co-creators of value.
Direct interaction means that two (or more) actors act together in one process, in which their doings and sayings influence each other’s actions and perceptions. The two actors’ processes thus merge into one collaborative, dialogical joint process. During this interactive process, every actor involved can directly and actively influence the value-in-use that emerges for the other actor (or actors). This collaborative, dialogical joint process then becomes a platform for reciprocal co-creation of value. What takes place on the interaction platform may influence how value is realised, or value fulfilment, for one or all actors – provided they are prepared to and effectively make use of the value co-creation opportunity.
Direct interaction need not be a joint collaborative, dialogical process with two persons though; it also can be a direct interaction between one actor (e.g. customer) and an intelligent non-human resource. For example, interactions with a system that can intelligently register the actions or speech of a person and respond to it form a joint dialogical process together with the person, as well as a platform for value co-creation. Both parties learn and immediately react on the basis of the lessons. Such interactions are also direct interactions. Most non-human resources, such as products and various types of systems, do not possess intelligent properties in this sense. For example, physical products or IT-based systems that respond in a standardised way to user actions do not meet the criteria of intelligent non-human resources. The customer still interacts with the firm, through the use of products or resources, but the interactions do not provide a value co-creation platform. These indirect interactions with a firm or a service provider involve resources, including non-intelligent products and systems, that the service provider offers to the customer as a source of potential value-in-use. Whether value-in-use is created or emerges by the use of such resources depends on the actions of the customer alone. This value creation can be characterised as a customer’s independent value creation.
Only direct interactions enable co-creation between the actors, such as a service provider and a customer, and form a platform for value co-creation. In the total value generation process, the development and provision of products and other resources by a firm, which enable indirect interactions only, are part of the provider sphere, which is closed to the customer (and other actors). Similarly, the resource integration actions of a customer, involving only indirect interactions with the firm, is closed to the firm."