"People have asked me thousands of times to name the most important aspect of pricing. I answer with one word: “value.”
When asked to elaborate, I will use the term “value to customer.” The price a customer is willing to pay, and therefore the price a company can achieve, is always a reflection of the perceived value of the product or service in the customer’s eyes. If the customer perceives a higher value, his or her willingness to pay rises. The converse is equally true: if the customer perceives a lower value relative to competitive products, willingness to pay drops.
“Perceive” is the operative word. When a company tries to figure out the price it can achieve, only the subjective (perceived) value of the customer matters. The objective value of the product or other measures of value, such as the Marxian theory that value is defined by the human labor time invested, do not matter intrinsically. They matter only to the degree that the customer thinks they matter and is willing to a pay a price in return.[Moi ici: Em Portugal ainda há muitos marxianistas, sobretudo empresários... mesmo quando são politicamente mais de direita]
The Romans understood this connection so well that they incorporated it into their language. In Latin the word “pretium” means both price and value. Literally speaking, price and value are one and the same. This is a good guideline for businesses to follow when they make their price decisions. It leaves managers with three tasks:
– Create value : The quality of materials, performance, and design all drive the perceived value of customers. This is also where innovation comes into play.
– Communicate value : This is how you influence customers’ perception. It includes how you describe the product, your selling proposition, and last but not least the brand . Value communication also covers packaging, product performance, and shelf or online placement.
– Retain value: What happens post-purchase is decisive in shaping a lasting, positive perception. Expectations about how the value lasts will have a decisive influence on a customer’s willingness to pay for luxury goods, consumer durables, and cars. [Moi ici: Algo na linha de J. C: Larreché que referi aqui]
The process of price setting begins at the conception of the product idea. A company must think about prices as early and often as possible in the development process, not just after a product is ready to launch."
Trechos retirados de "Confessions of the Pricing Man: How Price Affects Everything"