sábado, abril 21, 2012

A terceira revolução industrial

A revista The Economist traz esta semana um "Special Report" sobre a Terceira Revolução Industrial.
É com uma agradável sensação de dejá vue que sublinho aqui algumas das mensagens da revista e que já fazem parte da mensagem deste blogue há muitos anos.
Na verdade o "Special Report" é sobre marcadores como:

  • printer 3D
  • Mongo
  • Flexibilidade
  • 3ª vaga
  • prosumer
  • electronic cottage
  • rapidez
  • inshoring
  • mass customization
  • we are all weird
Pessoalmente acrescentaria ainda o tema das experiências.
É um mundo novo, um mundo de empreendedores, de artistas, de designers, de artesãos, de pequenas empresas, de pequenos produtores especialistas. Um mundo muito mais diversificado, muito menos uniformizado, muito menos "normal", com muitas mais oportunidades, muito mais dinâmico.
"Now a third revolution is under way. Manufacturing is going digital. As this week’s special report argues, this could change not just business, but much else besides." (Moi ici: Claro, que muita coisa vai mudar, os movimentos pendulares de transporte para o emprego desaparecem, muitas fábricas e empresas de serviços como as conhecemos vão desaparecer, as relações laborais a que estamos habituados vão desaparecer, o comércio, a produção, a distribuição, o ensino, tudo revolucionado, tudo em divergência acelerada de um padrão uniformizador... até a cobrança de impostos vai ter de ser repensada)
"The factory of the past was based on cranking out zillions of identical products: Ford famously said that car-buyers could have any colour they liked, as long as it was black. But the cost of producing much smaller batches of a wider variety, with each product tailored precisely to each customer’s whims, is falling. The factory of the future will focus on mass customisation—and may look more like those weavers’ cottages than Ford’s assembly line." (Moi ici: Recordar este postal  de 2006 com o exemplo da Canon. Contudo, ainda vou mais longe do que o artigo; existirá fábrica do futuro? Não será antes atelier do futuro? As fábricas do futuro não estarão nas nossas casas, ou garagens, ou ...? )
"The geography of supply chains will change. An engineer working in the middle of a desert who finds he lacks a certain tool no longer has to have it delivered from the nearest city. He can simply download the design and print it. ... New materials are lighter, stronger and more durable than the old ones. ... New techniques let engineers shape objects at a tiny scale. ... And with the internet allowing ever more designers to collaborate on new products, the barriers to entry are falling. Ford needed heaps of capital to build his colossal River Rouge factory; his modern equivalent can start with little besides a laptop and a hunger to invent. Like all revolutions, this one will be disruptive. Digital technology has already rocked the media and retailing industries, just as cotton mills crushed hand looms and the Model T put farriers out of work. Many people will look at the factories of the future and shudder."  
Num outro artigo do relatório, "Back to making stuff":
"“Instead of a giant, purpose-built plant to supply the global market, you could imagine smaller, regionalised plants,” says Mr Sofen. Such factories could respond more rapidly to local demand, especially if a pandemic were to break out."
Num outro artigo do relatório, "All together now":
"Just as digitisation has freed some people from working in an office, the same will happen in manufacturing. Product design and simulation can now be done on a personal computer and accessed via the cloud with devices such as smartphones, says Mr Rochelle of Autodesk, the Silicon Valley software company. It means designers and engineers can work on a product and share ideas with others from anywhere. What does this do for manufacturing? The way Mr Rochelle sees it, “it means the factory of the future could be me, sitting in my home office.”"
 Depois disto tudo... estão já a imaginar os pedidos de ajudas, subsídios, barreiras protectoras, toda a parafernália do costume que os incumbentes vão invocar para serem protegidos pelos governos?

1 comentário:

CCz disse...