sábado, março 20, 2010

Acerca da formulação de estratégias

Hermann Simon no seu livro “Hidden Champions of the Twenty-First Century” escreve estas palavras acerca da estratégia:

“Strategy is the art and science of developing and employing a company’s resources to secure profitable, long-term survival. As strategy itself always implies creating something original and different, strategy development cannot be a pure science. The French philosopher Henri Bergson pointed out in 1907 that science must deal with repeatable phenomena if new laws are to be discovered. Strategy, on the other hand, cannot be repeated or imitated. The great error of many strategists is that they are continuously looking for the laws of strategy. They study the success stories of yesterday in order to imitate them. This is the wrong course, even if it involves following the lead of the hidden champions. Superior strategies result only from creativity, originality, and lateral thinking. An American proverb states, “Find out what everybody else is doing, then do it differently.” The only problem is that no one tells us what “differently” means. We have to find this out for ourselves.”

Algumas sugestões para a formulação da estratégia:

There is not even a standard procedure for strategy development. The right approach, taking either the market or the company’s competencies as a starting point, must be determined for each case individually.

Despite this warning against one-size-fits-all approach, the strategy development process usually encompasses the following stages:

  • Analyzing the current position: Where do we stand?
  • Setting strategic goals: Where do we want to go?
  • Defining the business/market: What is our business? In which market do we want to do business?
  • Analyzing internal competencies: What are we capable of? What skills do we have? Innovativeness, financial resources, and personnel are examined here.
  • Analyzing the market/customers: How large is our market? How quickly is it growing? Who are the customers? What do they expect from us? How much are they willing to pay?
  • Analyzing the competition: Who are our current and potential competitors? What are our competitive advantages and disadvantages? This aspect includes the issue of costs.
  • Establishing plan of action: Who will do what, and when?
  • Anticipating outcome analysis/forecast: What outcomes do we expect?”

Eu prefiro começar pela definição dos clientes-alvo, prefiro começar pelo fim. Um negócio sustentável só o é se conseguir satisfazer um conjunto de clientes-alvo. Esses clientes-alvo vão ficar satisfeitos em consequência de experiências que vão sentir com os produtos e serviços oferecidos. O que é que um negócio tem de fazer para proporcionar e comunicar essas experiências? Esta é a ponte para a identificação dos processos críticos. Daí vem o passo seguinte: Quais são as competências necessárias para satisfazer os clientes-alvo, ou seja, para operar esses processos críticos?

E como vamos fazer a diferença? Até pode ser pela relação que vamos criar, nutrir e desenvolver…

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